Таърихи сиёсии Осиёи Миёна дар асри VI ва ибтидои асри V пеш аз милод — Донишхона

Таърихи сиёсии Осиёи Миёна дар асри VI ва ибтидои асри V пеш аз милод

Ба вуҷуд омадани давлати Ҳахоманишиҳо

Пайдоиши нахустин падидаҳои давлат дар Эрон ба асрҳои IХ-VII пеш аз милод тааллуқ дорад . Дар ин асрҳо аксари ноҳияҳои Эрони ғарбӣ ба ҳайъати давлатҳои Ошур ва Урарту дохил мешуд (вилоятҳое, ки баъдтар маркази салтанати мидиҳо гардидаанд, дар таҳти тасарруфи давлати Ошур буданд; тоифаҳои форсии ҷанубу ғарби Эрон, ки аввалҳо ба подшоҳии Аллом ва баъд ба Ҳахоманишиҳо итоат мекарданд, тақрибан дар соли 640 пеш аз милод тобеияти худро нисбат ба Ошур эътироф намуданд). Дар асрҳои VIII–VII қисмати муҳими хоки шимолу ғарби Эрон дар зери идораи давлати под-шоҳии Монӣ муттаҳид гардид.

Тоифаҳои эронизабон дар марҳилаҳои аввали нуфузи худ ба Эронзамин (аз охири ҳазораи II – ибтидои ҳазораи I пеш аз милод) ҳанӯз ба ҳамон да-раҷаи тараққиёти иҷтимоию сиёсӣ, ки таъсиси иттиҳодияе мисли давлат им-кон медода бошад, нарасида буданд. Фақат баъдтар дар асоси ин тоифаҳо ва ба онҳо омехтани аҳолии маҳаллии як қатор вилоятҳои Эрон тамаркузи (кон-солидатсияи) унсурони эронизабон ба амал омада, дар натиҷаи инкишофи он дар чоряки дувуми асри VII пеш аз милод давлати подшоҳии Мидӣ таъсис меёбад, ки аввалҳо дар ҳудуди ноҳияи Экботан (Ҳамадон) ва чанде аз вило-ятҳои ҳамсоя қарор гирифта, пас аксарияти вилоятҳои Эрон (аз ҷумла, вило-яти Форс), хоки давлатҳои Монӣ ва Урарту, як идда ноҳияҳои тобеи давлати Ошур, қисмати шарқии Осиёи Хурдро тасарруф намуд ; ҳудуди он дар шарқ то сарҳадди Осиёи Миёна расида буд.

Дар миёнаҳои асри VI пеш аз милод ба ҷои давлати Мидӣ давлати Ҳахо-манишиҳо ба вуҷуд меояд. Бо зуҳури давлати ҷаҳонии Ҳахоманишиҳо ҳамон протсесҳои хоси давраи гузашта (асрҳои IХ-VI пеш аз милод), ки тамоюли ба як давлат муттаҳид кардани халқу кишварҳои мухталифи Шарқи бостониро (чунон ки давлатҳои Ошур, Урарту, Мидӣ ва Бобули Нав муттасил вусъат ме-ёфтанд) ифода менамуд, ба анҷом расиданд.

Бунёди давлати Ҳахоманишиҳоро подшоҳи тоифаҳои форс Куруши II гу-зошт, ки пештар чун вассал ба салтанати Мидӣ тобеъ буд. Ӯ дар натиҷаи муборизаҳои сахт ва дуру дароз на фақат аз тобеият халос шуд, балки дар соли 550 пеш аз милод давлати Мидиро тамоман торумор намуда, ба зери итоати худ даровард. Вай дар баробари унвони подшоҳи Форс унвони под-шоҳи Мидиро ҳам соҳиб шуд .

Куруши II ҷангҳои зиёде кардааст. Ӯ аввал тамоми мулкҳои тобеи давла-ти Мидиро тасарруф намуд. Сипас, дар соли 547 ё 546 пеш аз милод давлати юнонии Осиёи Хурд – Лидияро, ки мамлакати пурсарвате буд, ба салтанати худ тобеъ кард .

Футуҳоти Куруши II дар Осиёи Миёна

Натиҷаҳои давраи аввали фаъолияти Куруши II ин буд, ки давлати Ҳахо-манишӣ ба иқтидори бузурге соҳиб гардид, нуфуси мамлакат ва манбаъҳои моддии он афзуд. Ҳамаи ин барои амалӣ гардидани ниятҳои Куруш дар бо-бати ба вуҷуд овардани давлати паҳновари фарогирандаи тамоми Осиё ша-роит ва имконият муҳайё сохт.

Пас аз фатҳи Лидия, ба қавли Геродот (I, 153), «дар сари роҳи Куруш ки-швари Бобул, мардуми бохтар, сакоиҳо ва мисриён қарор гирифта буданд, ки дар набардҳои зидди онҳо ӯ мехост шахсан худаш сардорӣ кунад, аз ин рӯ, ба ҷанги зидди иониҳо сарлашкари дигареро фиристод». Чунин нақшаи Куруш тасодуфӣ набуд: аз афташ, ӯ дар бораи иқтидор ва омодагии ҳарбии халқҳои Осиёи Миёна вуқуфи комил дошт. Бинобар ин, ӯ дар ин сафарҳои ҷангӣ фармондиҳии қӯшунро, ҳатто ба наздиктарин сарлашкарони худ ҳам бовар карда супурда наметавонист.

Мо дар бораи он ки истилои Осиёи Миёна чи гуна сурат гирифт, чизе ба яқин намедонем. Вале ҳаминаш маълум аст, ки истилогарон дар роҳи раси-дан ба ниятҳои худ бераҳмиҳои аз ҳад зиёде кардаанд. Чи навъе ки Геродот хабар медиҳад (I, 177), «Қисми зиёди аҳолии Осиёи поёнро Гарпаг ва Осиёи болоро худи Куруш, ки халқҳои онро паси ҳам, ба ҳеҷ яке раҳм накарда, ба асорат дучор мекард, аз дами теғ гузарониданд». Муаррихи Бобули асри III пеш аз милод Беросс ҳамчунин хабар медиҳад, ки Куруш танҳо пас аз мутеъ кардани тамоми Осиё ба Бобул лашкар кашид. Ҳамаи ин далелҳо нақлу ри-вояти Николаи Димишқиро («Таърих», 75) дар хусуси ин ки пас аз ғалабаи Куруши II бар давлати подшоҳии Мидӣ гӯё сатрапи Гиркон ба пои худ омада, изҳори итоат карда бошад ва «сипас, сатрапҳои портҳо, сакоиҳо, бохтариҳо ва соири халқҳо паси ҳам, яке пештар аз дигаре омада, дар назди ӯ ба замин зону зада бошанд», комилан рад мекунанд. Ҳамаи ин гуфтаҳо иштибоҳи маҳз аст, зеро бохтариҳо ва сакоиҳо ба ҳайъати давлати Мидӣ намедарома-данд ва онҳоро тасхир кардани Куруш ҳоло дар пеш буд. Ин гуфтаҳо, зоҳиран, дар ҳаққи дигар вилоятҳо ҳам нодуруст аст. Дар ин бобат ахбори Трог дар нақли Юстин (1, 7, 2) ба ҳақиқат наздиктар аст: «Давлатҳое, ки пеш тобеи мидиҳо буданд, тағйири ҳокимиятро тағйироти вазъи худ пиндошта, аз Куруш ҷудо шуданд; ин барои Куруш баҳонае гардид, ки ба ҷангҳои сершу-мор оғоз намояд».

Баъзе тафсилоти футуҳоти Куруши II дар Осиёи Миёна аз тарафи Ктесий (фиқраи 9/29) низ баён ёфтааст. Ӯ хабар медиҳад, ки Куруш «бо бохтариҳо меҷангид, вале дар муҳориба бартарии ягон тараф аён нагардид». Фақат пас аз он ки бохтариҳо аз устувории вазъияти сиёсии дохили давлати Ҳахома-нишӣ огоҳ шуданд, «ихтиёран» ба Куруш сари итоат фуруд оварданд.

Махсусан, маълумоти навиштаҷоти кӯҳи Бесутун , ки бо амри Дорои I сабт шудааст, аҳамияти калоне дорад. Аз ин навиштаҷот роҷеъ ба ҳайъати давлати Ҳахоманишӣ то замони ҷулуси Дорои I бисёр мадракҳои баҳснопа-зир ба даст овардан мумкин аст. Дар айни замон бояд дар назар дошт, ки дар фосилаи байни вафоти Куруши II ва ба тахт нишастани Дорои I, яъне дар солҳои 530-522 пеш аз милод Ҳахоманишиҳо на ин ки ба тобеъ кардани ви-лоятҳои нави Осиёи Миёна, балки ба фатҳи Миср ва умури дохилии давлати худ машғул буданд . Доро дар сутуни аввали навиштаҷоти мазкур: «Ин аст он кишварҳое, ки бо меҳрубонии Аҳуромаздо насиби ман гардидаанд» мегӯяд ва аз ҷумлаи ин кишварҳо Порт, Ориё, Хоразм, Бохтар, Суғд ва ҳам-чунин вилоятҳои ҷануби Афғонистон ва шимолу ғарби Ҳиндустон: Қандаҳор, Сатагидия, Арахосия ва дар миёни ду вилояти аввал «Сака»-ро (эҳтимол, са-коиҳои ҳавмаварға дар назар дошта шуда бошад) ном мебарад. Дар сар-чашмаҳои Юнони Қадим ахборе (Плиний, VI, 23) мавҷуд аст, ки Куруш Ка-писаро (муҳаққиқон одатан онро ба маҳалли Бағроми назди Кобул нисбат медиҳанд) хароб намуд .

Дар асоси хулосаи он далелу мадракҳои хеле кам, ки мо дар даст дорем, метавон тахмин кард, ки ба Куруши II фатҳи Порт, Бохтар, Хоразм, Суғд ва кадом як қисмати сакоиҳо, яқинан сакоиҳои ҳавмаварға, муяссар гардида-аст . То куҷоҳо тӯл кашидани ҳудуди давлати Ҳахоманишӣ дар қисмати ши-молу шарқ ба мо маълум нест. Як вақтҳо чанде аз муҳаққиқон ба баъзе сар-чашмаҳои баъдина, ки бунёди шаҳри Кирополро ба Куруш нисбат медоданд, истинод намуда, то Фарғона расидани ҳудуди давлати Ҳахоманиширо тасдиқ карданӣ мешуданд. Вале ин иддао дар асоси таҳқиқу таҳлили мадракҳои за-бонӣ то андозае аҳамияти худро аз даст дод. Чунин мулоҳизае баён ёфт, ки шаҳр, дар воқеъ, Куру-(ш)-ката ном дошта, қисми аввали калима мумкин аст номи қабила бошад ва юнониҳо ин калимаро каме дигар карда, Кирэсхата хондаанд .

Куруш ва Томирис.

Шикасти қӯшуни Ҳахоманишӣ

Дар соли 539 пеш аз милод Куруши II Бобулро сарнагун карда ба қасди истилои Миср афтод. Аммо вазъияти сарҳади шимолу шарқии давлат, яъне Осиёи Миёна ӯро доимо ба ташвиш андохта, ба сафари Миср монеъ мешуд. Ниҳоят ӯ дубора ба сӯи Осиёи Миёна ҳаракат кард, то хавфи ақибгоҳи худро бартараф намояд. Куруш дар садади торумор кардани бодиянишинони муқтадири Осиёи Миёна худ дар сари қӯшун қарор гирифта, ба набарди зидди онҳо мерафт.

Аксари муаллифони қадим роҷеъ ба ин ҷангҳои Куруш маълумот медиҳанд, аммо ҳар кадоми онҳо воқеаро ба таври худ баён менамоянд. Яке мегӯяд: Куруш аз дарёи Аракс убур карда, ба сарзамини массагетҳо дохил шуд, ки сарвари онҳо малика Томирис буд. Дигаре ҳам тақрибан ҳамин тавр нақл мекунад: Куруш бо скифҳо, ки дар сари онҳо Томирис меистод, ҷангҳо кард. Севумӣ чунин меоварад: Куруш бо дарбикҳо задухӯрд намуд. Ниҳоят, ривояти дигаре ҳаст, ки аз ҷангидани Куруш дар «даштҳои дайҳо» хабар медиҳад .

Геродот, Трог-Юстин ва дигар муаллифонро дар бораи ин ҷангҳои Ку-руш ва натиҷаи онҳо ҳикоятҳои муфассале ҳаст. Ба тариқи мисол аз ҳикояти Трог-Юстин мазмунан фиқраи зеринро меоварем: Куруш Осиёро тасхир ва тамоми Шарқро ба ҳокимияти худ мутеъ намуда, ба ҷанги зидди скифҳо рафт. Он вақт ҳукмрони скифҳо Томирис буд. Вай бо вуҷуди зан буданаш, бар хилофи чашмдошт, аз ҳамлаи душман наҳаросид. Томирис метавонист пеши роҳи убури қӯшуни душманро аз дарёи Окс бигирад, аммо вай ин тавр накард, ба гузаштани душман имкон дод. Зеро малика ба чунин мулоҳизае расида буд, ки дар ҳудуди давлати худ бо душман ҷанг кардан барояш осон-тар аст, вале барои душман, ки дарё пеши роҳашро бастааст, гурехта ҷон ба саломат бурдан амри маҳол хоҳад шуд. Куруш қӯшуни худро аз дарё гузаро-нид ва чанд фарсах ба дарунтари мамлакати скифҳо даромада, дар ҷое та-ваққуф намуд. Рӯзи дигар мисли ин ки аз тарс фирор мекарда бошад, дафъатан ӯрдугоҳро тарк кард ва гӯё аз саросемагӣ ба қадри фаровон май ва тамоми асбоби зиёфатро партофта рафт. Вақте ки инро ба малика гуфтанд, вай писари ҳанӯз ҷавони худро бо сеяк ҳиссаи лашкари скифҳо барои таъқиби душман фиристод. Ҷавони кори ҳарбро наозмуда, ҳамин ки қадам ба ӯрдугоҳи душман ниҳод, худро на дар майдони разм, балки дар саҳни базм дарёфт, душманро фаромӯш кард ва гузошт, ки сарбозони барбарии шаробнадида аз майхӯрӣ масти лояъқил шаванд ва май онҳоро пештар аз силоҳи адӯ ба мағлубият дучор гардонид. Чун Куруш аз ин ҳол воқиф шуд, шабонгаҳ пас гашт ва ин сарбозони масти афтода ва оҷизу нотавонро ҳам-роҳи писари малика сар аз тан ҷудо кард. Томирис ин қадар қӯшунро ва аз ҳама аламноктар ягона фарзанди дилбанди худро аз даст дода, тасаллои ди-ли пурдарди худро на дар ашкҳои сӯзон, балки дар интиқоми ҷонситон дид ва мисли ҳамон тадбири душмани маккор, ки ҳоло дар нишоти барори дирӯза кайфу сафо дорад, тадбир андешид. Вай чунон вонамуд кард, ки гӯё пас аз ин зарбаи сахт ба қувваи худ бовар надорад ва роҳи гурезро пеш ги-рифта, Курушро бо ҳила аз дунболи худ ба тангнои кӯҳ кашид, ки пешакӣ дар камарҳои он сарбозони худро ба камин нишонда буд. Томирис дар ин ҷо қӯшуни 200 000-нафараи форсро ҳамроҳи подшоҳашон маҳв намуд. Ҳатто ягон пайке ё ҷондоре, ки форсҳоро аз ин шикасти даҳшатангез огоҳ мекарда бошад, боқӣ намонд. Малика амр кард, ки сари буридаи Курушро ба машки бо хуни одамӣ пуркардашуда андозанд ва худ бо чунин суханон бераҳмии ӯро маҳкум намуд: «Инак сер шав аз хуне, ки ту ҳамеша ташнаи он будӣ ва ҳеҷ гоҳ аз он сер намешудӣ» (Юстин, I, 8, 1-13).

Ҳикояти Геродот (а, 205-214) боз ҳам муфассалтар аст. Аз он маълум ме-шавад, ки Куруш аввал ба воситаи фиристодагони махсуси Томирис ба ма-лика заношӯ шуданро пешниҳод карда будааст. «Лекин Томирис,– менави-сад Геродот,- на хостгори вай, балки хостгори салтанати массагетҳо будани Курушро пай бурда, ин пешниҳодро рад намуд» (I, 205). Писари Томирисро «Спаргапис» меномиданд (I, 211) вай кушта нашуда, балки асир афтода, ху-дашро кушта будааст (I, 213). Доир ба муҳорибаи массагетҳо ва қӯшуни ҳа-хоманишӣ чунин нақл карда мешавад: «…Ин муҳориба аз тамоми заду-хӯрдҳое, ки барбариҳо иштирок доштаанд, шадидтар буд. Аз рӯи шунидам, вай ин тариқа рӯй додааст: аввал ҳарду қӯшун аз масофаи дуртар истода ба якдигар аз камон тир паррондаанд, сонӣ, вақте ки тири камон тамом шуда-аст, ба ҷанги тан ба тан гузашта, найзаву шамшерзанӣ кардаанд. Қӯшунҳо муддати дуру дароз ба ҳам муқобил истода, ҳеҷ яке аз тарафҳо ба гурез рӯ наниҳо-дааст. Ниҳоят, массагетҳо ғалаба ба даст овардаанд. Бештарин қисма-ти қӯшу-ни форс дар майдони ҷанг нобуд гардида, худи Куруш ҳам кушта шудааст» (Геродот, I, 214). Страбон ба (ХI, 8, 5) ин ахбор чунин як маълумоти хеле муҳимро илова менамояд, ки дар вақти ин ҷанг душманони бодияни-шини Куру-ши II (ӯ онҳоро сакоӣ меномад) қӯшуни ҳахоманиширо ду бор шикаст доданд.

Масъалаи аниқ муайян кардани самти ҳаракати Куруши II ва маҳалли ҷангҳои ӯ хеле мураккаб аст. Баъзеҳо тахмин мекунанд, ки ин Сирдарё, Аму-дарё ва ё Узбой аст. Шояд маҳалли охирӣ ба ҳақиқат наздиктар бошад .

Аз тарафи массагетҳо шикаст хӯрдани Куруш дар охири июлу ибтидои августи соли 530 пеш аз милод воқеъ шудааст, ки ин ягона санаи яқинан муқарраршудаи таърихи халқҳои Осиёи Миёна мебошад .

Чунон ки М.М.Дяконов менависад: «Куруш яке аз барҷастатарин си-моҳои таърихи қадим буд» . Ин, бешубҳа, ҳақ аст, зеро Куруш дар фаъоли-яти худ, ҳамчун ифодакунандаи бисёр тамоюлҳои пешқадами замони худ баромад мекард. Илова бар ин, захираҳои фаровони давлати паҳновари Ҳа-хоманишӣ, кӣ тӯли он аз Осиёи Хурд то водии Ҳинд кашида мешуд, дар их-тиёри ӯ буд. Ба ин ҳама нигоҳ накарда, ӯ дар мубориза бо бодиянишинони Осиёи Миёна на фақат ба шикасти сахт дучор шуд, балки худаш ҳам ҳалок гардид. Ин ҷо асли гап на дар ноомади кор ва на дар бахти ноустувор аст. Мардумоне, ки барои муҳофизати озодӣ ва истиқлолияти худ камар баста-анд, тамоми қувваи худро ба муқобили душман сафарбар менамоянд. Тим-соли чунин муборизаҳои қаҳрамонона чи дар таърихи халқҳои Осиёи Миёна ва чи умуман дар таърихи ҷаҳон бешумор аст.

Шӯриши зидди Хахоманишиҳо дар аҳди Дорои I

Ғалабаи бодиянишинони Осиёи Миёна бар Куруши II дар ҳалли тақдири давлати Ҳахоманишӣ роли калоне бозид. Аз як тараф, бунёдгузори тавонои давлати Ҳахоманишӣ кушта шуд, аз тарафи дигар, писар ва валиаҳди ӯ Кам-буҷиё маҷбур гардид, ки сафари ҷангии кайҳо муқарраршудаи Мисрро мавқуф гузорад . Дертар Камбуҷиё ба ҳар ҳол ба Миср лашкар кашида, ин мамлакатро ҳам ба таҳти тасарруфи Ҳахоманишиҳо даровард.

Дар соли 522 пеш аз милод ҳокимияти Эронро яке аз намояндаҳои суло-лаи ҳахоманишӣ Дорои I ба даст даровард (ӯ то соли 486 салтанат рондааст). Бесарусомониҳои хонадони подшоҳӣ ва муборизаҳои тоҷутахтталабӣ, ки дар муҳити бӯҳрони сиёсиву иҷтимоӣ ба вуқӯъ меомад, ба парешонии давлати ҳахоманишӣ ва сар задани ҷунбишҳои истиқлолиятхоҳонаи як қатор вило-ятҳо оварда расонид. Дар навиштаҷоти машҳури кӯҳи Бесутун, ки Доро ба мақсади ҷовидон гардонидани корҳои худ сабт кардааст, аз хусуси фурӯ ни-шондани чунин ошӯбҳо ба таври муфассал нақл карда мешавад.

Халқҳои Осиёи Миёна ҳам барои аз дӯш барандохтани юғи асорати Ҳа-хоманишиҳо аз ин фурсат истифода намуданд. Порт, Марғиён ва мамлакати сакоиҳо сар бардоштанд (навиштаҷоти Бесутун, 6-8). Шӯриш махсусан дар Марғиён вусъати зиёд пайдо кард. Дорои I дар навиштаҷоти Бесутун (кати-баи Бесутун, III, 10-12) дар ин бора чунин нақл мекунад: «Доро гӯяд: кишвари Марғиён ба ошӯб омад. Якеро бо номи Фради Марғиёнӣ сардор хонданд. Пас, ман як марди форсро бо номи Додоршиш, банда ва волии ман, ба Бо-хтар фиристода, ба ӯ гуфтам: «Бирав ва мағлуб соз лашкареро, ки худро на лашкари ман гӯяд». Сипас, Додоршиш бо қӯшун бирафт ва бар сари Марғи-ёниён битохт. Аҳуро-Маздо ба ман мададгор шуд. Бо марҳамати Аҳуро-Маздо қӯшуни ман лашкари ошӯбгаронро торумор намуд. Рӯзи 23-и моҳи ассиядия ҷанг оғоз шуд». Пас аз ин, Доро мегӯяд (навиштаҷоти Бесутун, III, 19-20) «кишвар мутеи ман гардид».

Санаи ин навиштаҷот мутобиқи 10 декабри соли 522 пеш аз милод аст  ва ин ҳам мисли санаи шикасти Куруш аз қадимтарин санаҳои аниқ муа-йянгардидаи таърихи СССР ба шумор меравад.

Қӯшуни ҳахоманишӣ бо сардории волии Бохтар шӯришро бераҳмона пахш кард, дурусттараш ба хун ғарқ намуд. Тибқи ривояти бобулӣ ва нусхаи оромии навиштаҷоти Бесутун 55 ҳазор кушта ва 6,5 ё 7 ҳазор кас асир гириф-та шуд . Пешвои шӯришгарон Фрад аввал раҳоӣ ёфт, вале баъд аскарони ҳахоманишӣ ӯро ҳам дастгир карданд. Шӯришҳои Порт ва кишвари сакоиҳо низ бераҳмона фурӯ нишонда шуд.

Дорои I дар соли савуми салтанати худ (соли 519/518 пеш аз милод) мах-сус ба муқобили сакоиҳои тиграхуд лашкар кашид (навиштаҷоти Бесутун, V, 20-30). Дар муҳориба сакоиҳо шикаст хӯрданд. Қисме аз онҳо асир афтод. Дар миёни асирон пешвои сакоиҳо Скунҳа ҳам буд. Дорои I барои сакоиҳо пешвои дигар таъин намуд .

Муаллифи Юнони Қадим Полиен (ХII, 12) дар асоси ривоятҳои то ба ӯ расидаи сакоӣ роҷеъ ба як лавҳаи муборизаи диловаронаи сакоиҳо чунин нақл мекунад: Дорои I бо қӯшуни сершуморе ба муқобили онҳо равона шуд. Замоне ба ӯрдугоҳи ӯ саиси сакоӣ Шерак омад. Аъзои баданаш маъюб, рӯяш аз ҷароҳат баднамо, гӯшу биниаш бурида буд. Шерак арз кард, ки ҳамқав-монаш ҳамин тариқа ҷазояш доданд ва инак, ӯ ташнаи ниқор аст. Ӯ роҳба-ладиро ба зимма гирифта, ваъда кард, ки қӯшуни форсҳоро бо пайраҳаҳои фақат ба худаш маълум якбора ба ақибгоҳи сакоиҳо мерасонад. Пас аз ҳафт рӯзи роҳи пурмашаққат аскарони форс ба биёбони хушку холӣ баромада монданд. Онҳоро хавфи ҳалокат таҳдид мекард. Форсҳо фиреб хӯрдани худро фаҳмиданд. Шерак, дар ҳолате ки душман ба сараш теғ мекашид, бо ифтихор ҷавоб дод: «Ман ғалабаро ба даст овардам, зеро барои аз сари ҳамватанони худам – сакоиҳо дур кардани фалокат форсҳоро аз гушнагиву ташнагӣ ба ҳалокат супурдам». Форсҳо сари саисро аз тан ҷудо карданд. Ин сафари ҷан-гии Дорои I, чи навъе ки аз гуфтаҳои Полиен бармеояд, бемуваффақият анҷом ёфт.

Таърихи сиёсии Осиёи Миёна дар асри VI ва ибтидои асри V пеш аз милод: 335 комментариев

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