Нақши халқҳои Осиёи миёна дар муборизаи байни Умавиҳо ва Аббосиён — Донишхона

Нақши халқҳои Осиёи миёна дар муборизаи байни Умавиҳо ва Аббосиён

Гурӯҳҳои мухолиф дар хилофат

Рӯҳияи душманона нисбат ба ҳокимияти хилофат на танҳо дар Осиёи Миёна, балки дар дигар кишварҳои таҳти тасарруфи арабҳо низ хеле пурқувват буд. Усули идораи халифаҳои араб на фақат норизоияти оммаи меҳнаткашро ба вуҷуд меовард, дар айни замон, ба ашрофи заминдори маҳаллӣ ҳам намефорид. Зеро ашрофи маҳаллӣ тақрибан ба куллӣ аз ҳуқуқи сиёсӣ маҳрум гардида буданд ва дар натиҷаи ба нафъи халифа ва аъёни қабилавии араб равона шудани тамоми молиёт ва андозҳои барзгарон ба оидоти онҳо хеле зарар мерасид.

Сиёсати пешгирифтаи халифаҳои Банӣ Умавия на фақат ба халқҳои мутеъ, балки инчунин ба худи оммаи арабҳо хуш намеомад. Ин ҳолат бо протсесси ба синфҳо ҷудошавии қабилаҳои араб, вайроншавии алоқаҳои авлодӣ ва афзудани нобаробарии мулкӣ, ки дар ҳамин вақт ба вуқӯъ мепайваст, вобаста буд. Дар сари ҳокимият нишастани Умавиҳоро ду гурӯҳи асосӣ ғайриқонунӣ медонистанд.

Гурӯҳи аввал хориҷиҳо буданд. Ин гурӯҳ намояндагони ҳамон табақаҳоеро дар бар мегирифт, ки аз баланд шудани мартабаи аъёну ашрофи араб норозӣ буда, бар зидди усули ба мерос бурдани тахти хилофат баромад мекарданд ва чунин қоидаро пешниҳод менамуданд: «Нест халифае, ки берун аз хости Худо ва майли халқ бошад». Онҳо чунин ҳисоб мекарданд, ки халифаи аз тарафи ҷамоат интихобшуда мумкин аст дар сурати бад идора карданаш аз тарафи ҳамон ҷамоат назл карда шавад; бояд дар дохили ҷамоати мусулмон баробарии комил ҳукмфармо бошад. Аз ҳамин сабаб ҳам баъдҳо таваҷҷӯҳи доираҳои васеи аҳолии аслан ғайриараб, хусусан барзгарон ба тарафи ин гурӯҳ кашида шуд.

Гурӯҳи дигар тарафдорони Алӣ (шиаҳо) буданд.  Дар аввалҳо ин гурӯҳ манфиатҳои баъзе болонишинони хонадонҳои қадимаи маккавӣ ва мадинавиро, ки усули меросӣ будани тахти хилофатро эътироф карда, дар айни замон, фақат авлоди Алиро (амакзода ва домоди Муҳаммад, шавҳари Фотима) ворисони ҳақиқӣ медонистанд, ифода менамуд. Алӣ ва писари кӯчаки ӯ Ҳусайн, ки дар вақти задухӯрдҳои дохилӣ кушта шуда буданд, бо ҳолаи азиятдидагони муқаддас иҳота шуда, ливои муборизаи зидди Умавиҳо гардиданд. Дар оянда мазҳаби шиа ва парастиши Алӣ ба байрақи чандин ҷараёнҳои мухолифатварзандаи дохили ислом табдил ёфт. Мазҳаби шиа аз оғози ба вуҷуд омадани худ, хусусан, дар миёнаи болонишинони ҷамоаи халқҳои мутеи хилофат, ки онро ҳамчун василаи суст шудани фишори аҷнабиён мепиндоштанд, тарафдорони зиёде пайдо намуд .

Ғайр аз ин, тақрибан аз соли 718 сар карда, авлоди Аббос (амаки Муҳаммад) бар зидди ҳукмронии Умавиҳо ба таври пинҳонӣ таблиғоти ҷиддӣ бурданд. Аббосиён даъво мекарданд, ки ҳаққи хилофат аз они Банӣ Ҳошим, яъне хонадони пайғамбар аст. Аммо кӣ бояд аз ин хонавода ба тахти хилофат нишинад, дар ин бора одатан чизе ошкоро намегуфтанд. Аз ин сабаб онҳо ба шиаҳо, ки гумон доштанд Аббосиён ба нафъи онон амал мекунанд, муттаҳид шуданд.

Норизоияти умумӣ нисбат ба сиёсати Умавиҳо махсусан дар солҳои чилуми асри VIII, яъне дар овони хилофати Марвони II (744–750) ниҳоятдараҷа қувват гирифт, ки ба ин афзудани хироҷ ва дар бинокориҳои бузург беш аз пеш иҷборан истифода шудани қувваи аҳолии маҳаллӣ боис гардида буд.

Халифаи Марвон ин вазъиятро ба хубӣ ҳис карда, барои таъмини бехатарии ҳокимияти Умавиҳо як қатор тадбирот пешбинӣ намуд: аввалан, ӯ тамоми аъзои хонаводаи Умавияро аз Димишқ ба шаҳри Ҳаррон (пойтахти нави хилофат) кӯчонид; сониян, вай фармон дод, ки ғайр аз шаҳри Антиохия, ки чун маркази аз румиҳо мудофиа кардани хилофат ба шумор мерафт, тамоми қалъа ва деворҳои атрофи шаҳрҳоро вайрон кунанд, то аҳолии маҳаллӣ аз ин истеҳкомот ба муқобили ҳукумати Банӣ Умавия истифода набаранд. Вале дигар ҳеҷ як тадбире пеши ҳаракати пурэътирозро гирифта наметавонист. Норизоияти умумӣ ба дараҷае вусъат ёфта буд, ки ҳатто аввалин бор дар таърихи хилофат аскарони хосаи дарбори халифа исён бардоштанд.

Яке аз шахсони соҳибнуфузи хонадони Аббосиён — Имом Иброҳим ибни Муҳаммад дар охирҳои давраи ҳукмронии Умавиён роҳбарӣ кардани корҳои таблиғотиро ба дасти худ гирифта, ба тамоми гӯшаву канори хилофат, махсусан, ба музофотҳои шарқӣ воизони махфӣ фиристод ва тарғиботи зидди Умавиҳоро хеле пурқувват намуд.

Аббосиён изҳор медоштанд, ки тамоми бадбахтиҳои аз рӯзи пайдо шудани ислом, яъне дар муддати ин сад сол ба сари мусулмонон омада аз тарафи халифаҳои Банӣ Умавия сар задааст. Онҳо ба халқ ваъда медоданд, ки дар сурати сарнагун шудани ҳукмронии Умавиҳо хироҷ ва соири молиётҳоро кам хоҳанд кард, дар бинокориҳо ба тарзи маҷбурӣ кор фармудани барзгаронро барҳам хоҳанд дод, ба аҳолии маҳаллӣ ҳуқуқи сиёсӣ бахшида, онҳоро низ ба умури давлатии хилофат ҷалб хоҳанд намуд.

Албатта, ин ҳама ваъдаҳо, ғайр аз фиреб додани халқ чизи дигаре набуд. Аббосиён ба ин восита фақат мехостанд, ки дар низоъҳои сулолавӣ бар алайҳи Умавиҳо оммаро ба тарафи худ кашида, муборизаро ба манфиати худ ташкил намоянд. Лекин он чӣ дар бораи манфиатҳои аслии оммаи васеъ бошад, Аббосиён ва воизони онҳо, ба мисли Умавиҳо, хеле кам фикр мекарданд.

Аббосиён дар муборизаи худ бар зидди Умавиҳо бештар ба ашрофи заминдори Мовароуннаҳр ва Хуросон, ки умедвор буданд дар сурати муваф-фақият пайдо кардани табаддулоти Аббосиён ба идора кардани мамлакат роҳ хоҳанд ёфт, такя менамуданд. Воизони махфии Аббосиён ҳанӯз дар вақти хилофати Ҳишом (724-743) дар Хуросон пайдо шуда буданд. Сарчашмаҳои таърихӣ чунин гувоҳӣ медиҳанд, ки дар вақти қоиммақоми Хуросон будани Асад ибни Абдуллоҳ (735-738) якчанд намояндагони Аббосиёнро дастгир карда, дасту пои онҳоро буридаанд. Дигар аз қоиммақомҳои Хуросон, ки ба муқобили шиаҳо ва Аббосиён бештар ва қатъитар мубориза бурдааст, ҳамон Наср ибни Сайёр (738-748) мебошад.

Дар нимаи дувуми солҳои 40-уми асри VIII вазифаи сардорӣ намудани муборизаи зидди хилофати Умавиҳоро Абӯмуслим, ки мубтакири табаддулоти Аббосиён буда, баъдҳо шӯҳрати зиёде пайдо намуд, ба зиммаи худ гирифт.

Неҳзати Абӯмуслим

Абӯмуслим аслан аз оилаи барзгар баромада, бар тибқи баъзе маълумот, дар аввалҳо ғулом будааст. Абӯмуслим дар наздикии бузургтарин шаҳри Хуросон – Марв қароргоҳи худро таъин намуда, ҳамчун «як шахси боэътимоди хонаводаи пайғамбар» барои сафарбар кардани аҳли шиа ва дигар одамони норозӣ бо тамоми ҷиддият кор мебурд. Ин унвони боэътимодро ба Абӯмуслим Аббосиён дода буданд, зеро амалиёти таблиғотии ӯ ба манфиати онҳо равона шуда буд. Вақте ки замина ҳозир шуд, 9 июли соли 747 Абӯмуслим байрақи сиёҳро, ки аз они Аббосиён буд, барафрошта, халқро ба муборизаи ошкоро даъват намуд.

Даъвати Абӯмуслим дар байни ҳам арабҳо ва ҳам халқҳои мутеи хилофат муваффақияти калоне пайдо кард. Муаллифи арабизабон Абӯҳанифаи Диноварӣ чӣ навъ афзудани қувваҳои аскари Абӯмуслимро ба ин тариқа фасеҳ тасвир менамояд: «Мардуми Ҳирот, Фушанҷ, Марворруд, Толиқон, Марв, Нисо, Абевард, Тӯс, Нишопур, Сарахс, Балх, Чағониён, Тахористон, Хатлон, Кеш  ва Насаф бо аҷала ба назди Абӯмуслим ҳаракат мекарданд. Ҳамаи онҳо ба аломати ҳамрайъӣ либоси худро ранги сиёҳ заданд, инчунин нимаи гурзҳои чӯбиашонро сиёҳ карданд… Ин мардум савори аспу хар ва ё пиёда харҳои худро пеш давонида ва ба онҳо «Харро Марвон!» – гӯён фарёд зада, яъне халифаи Марвон ибни Муҳаммадро тамасхуркунон ба хар нисбат дода, ба ин ҷониб меомаданд ва иддаи онҳо 100 000 нафар буд».  Даста-даста арабҳои Яман, ки шӯриши онҳо чанде пеш фурӯ нишонда шуда буд, дар таҳти байрақи Абӯмуслим гирд меомаданд. Ҳатто ғуломон, ки аз ин неҳзат ба сабук шудани ҳолати табоҳи худ умедвор буданд, ба қувваи ҳарбии ӯ ҳамроҳ мешуданд.

Қоиммақоми Хуросон — Наср ибни Сайёр, ки тамоми бори вазнини муборизаи зидди Абӯмуслим ба зиммаи ӯ афтода буд, дар бобати муттаҳид кардани арабҳо ба муқобили ин неҳзат хеле кӯшишҳои бефоида ба харҷ дод. Аъёну ашрофи тоифаҳои ҷудогонаи араб, ки пай дар пай барои ҳокимият мубориза мебурданд, дар ин вақт ба ҷаҳду талоши худ бештар вусъат дода буданд. Дар дохили қабилаҳои араб протсесси тақсимоти синфӣ босуръат ба амал омада, бисёрии арабҳо, алалхусус онҳое, ки аз табақаҳои фақир буданд, ба таҳти байрақи Абӯмуслим қарор мегирифтанд.

Дар аввали соли 748 Наср ибни Сайёр маҷбур шуд, ки пойтахти Хуросон шаҳри Марвро ба қиёмкунандагон гузошта, тарафи Нишопур ақиб нишинад. Лекин яке аз сарлашкарони Абӯмуслим, ки таъқиб кардани Наср ибни Сайёрро ӯҳдадор шуда буд, дар наздикии Нишопур ба қувваи ҳарбии ӯ зарбаи ҳалокатовар расонид ва гуфтан мумкин аст, ки ҳатто худи ҳамин муҳориба ғалабаи асосии шӯришро таъмин намуда, тақдири хилофати Умавиҳоро ҳал кард. Агарчанде халифаи Марвон тамоми қувваи дар ихтиёраш бударо ба кор дароварда, шӯришчиёнро шикаст дод ва Имом Иброҳими Аббосро дар пеши назари умум ба қатл расонид, лекин ин ҳам хилофати Умавиҳоро аз суқут наҷот дода натавонист. Шӯришчиён дар Ироқ ба қӯшунҳои ӯ якчанд зарбаи сахт дода, бузургтарин маркази хилофат — шаҳри Димишқро ишғол намуданд.

Ба ҳамин тариқ, он лашкаре, ки Абӯмуслим дар вилоятҳои шарқии хилофат асосан аз аҳолии Осиёи Миёна ва аз арабҳои мухолифи сиёсати Умавиҳо ташкил дода буд, дар соли 750 қувваҳои ҳарбии охирин намояндаи хонадони Умавияро торумор карда, хилофати ин силсиларо аз миён бардошт.

Ба сари ҳокимият Аббосиён омаданд. Лекин Аббосиён, чунон ки интизор мерафт, дар бораи оммаи асосии шӯришчиён, ки бо ташаббус ва фаъолияти онҳо ба тахти хилофат соҳиб шуда буданд, чизе фикр накарданд. Ваъдаҳои ба халқ додаи онҳо иҷро нагардид, Абӯмуслим ҳам, ки қоиммақоми Хуросон таъйин шуда буд, дар ин бора хомӯш монд.

Вақте ки суғдиён дар бораи вафо кардан ба аҳди худ, ҳатто ният надоштани Аббосиён ва Абӯмуслимро яқинан донистанд, дар Бухоро бо сардории Шарик ибни Шайх шӯриш намуданд. Абӯмуслим ба муқобили шӯришчиён қӯшуни даҳҳазора фиристод. Аммо шӯриш то дараҷае пурқувват буд, ки фақат бо кӯмаки бухорхудот Қутайба ибни Туғшода, ки ба муқобили аҳолии заҳматкаши Бухоро лашкари бо нафароти қӯшуни фиристодаи Абӯмуслим баробар бударо равона сохт, фурӯ нишондани он имконпазир гардид.

Абӯмуслим дар мубориза бар зидди императори Хитой, ки аз ҷангҳои дохили хилофат истифода намуда, хост ҳукмронии худро дар Осиёи Миёна барқарор кунад, низ ҳамчун ҳомии ғаюри хилофати Аббосиён фаъолият нишон дод. Дар соли 751 дар муҳорибаи шадиде, ки дар соҳили наҳри Талас, наздикии шаҳри кунунии Ҷамбул рух дод, қӯшуни арабҳо бо сардории яке аз сарлашкарони Абӯмуслим ба торумор намудани лашкари императори Хитой муваффақ гардид.

Бо вуҷуди он ки Абӯмуслим чи бо душманони хориҷӣ ва чи бо ҷунбишҳои дохилии зидди Аббосиён мубориза бурда, онҳоро самимона тарафдорӣ мекард, Аббосиён ба вай он қадар бовар надоштанд ва хавф мебурданд, ки ӯ рӯзе ба тахти хилофат даъво хоҳад кард. Ин хавф ба дараҷае расид, ки дар соли 755 халифа Абӯҷаъфар ал-Мансур (754-775) Абӯмуслимро ба ҳузури худ талабида, ӯро дар қасри худ аҳдшиканона қатл намуд.

Шӯриши Сумбоди Муғ ва неҳзати Муқаннаъ

Дар замони хилофати Аббосиён аҳволи оммаи васеи халқ на танҳо беҳтар нашуд, балки назар ба давраи Умавиҳо боз бадтар гардид. Оидоти замини иҷора бештар ба шакли молӣ буд. Аз заминҳои лалмӣ нисфи ҳосил ва аз заминҳои обёришаванда аз чаҳоряк то сеяки он ситонида мешуд. Баъзан аз рост наомадани тақвими қамарии мусулмонон бо тақвими шамсии зироат истифода намуда, дар як сол ду мартаба хироҷ мегирифтанд. Бар замми ин дар вақти хироҷғундорӣ корандагони заминро фиреб медоданд ва бо роҳи таҳдид ҳарчи зиёдтар молиёт меситониданд.

Дар натиҷаи қувват гирифтани протсесси инкишофи муносиботи фео-далӣ, замин, ки исман моликияти халифа ҳисоб ёфта, вале амалан ҳиссаи умдаи он дар дасти ашрофи заминдори маҳаллӣ буд, ба қитъаҳои хурд ҷудо карда, ба тариқи иҷора ба барзгарони бечора дода шуд. Ба ин васила аҳли озоди ҷамоат соҳибихтиёрии худро аз даст дода, дар қатори кадиварҳои мадюн, ғуломони озодшуда ва ё ғуломони ба заминҳо ҷо додашуда ба ашхоси вобаста мубаддал гардиданд.

Халифаҳои аббосӣ анъанаҳои Сосониёнро давом дода, ба ҳашамат ва дабдабаи дарбори онҳо низ тақлид мекарданд. Аъён ва ашрофи маҳаллӣ ҳам дар ин бобат ба онҳо пайравӣ менамуданд. Ин буд, ки бинокорӣ хеле авҷ гирифта, бисёр қасрҳо, қалъаҳо ва ғ. сохта шуданд. Ҳамаи хароҷоти ин бинокориҳо ба зиммаи барзгарон буд. Аҳволи пешаварони шаҳр низ беҳтар аз ин набуд. Онҳо мавриди истисмори нимфеодалӣ қарор гирифта, дар натиҷаи молиёти зиёд ва худсариҳои маъмурон тамоман муфлис гардида буданд. Молиёти ҷинсӣ, инчунин ба дӯши туркҳои бодиянишин ҳам бори гароне шуда, онҳоро ба паршикастагӣ дучор мекарданд.

Ҳамаи инҳо боиси афзудани эътироз ва иғтишоши халқ мегардид. Яке аз бузургтарин шӯришҳо дар он замон — шӯриши Сумбоди Муғ буд. Сумбод аз пайравони наздики Абӯмуслим ҳисоб мешуд. Вай дар соли 755 бо шиори «барои хуни Абӯмуслим бояд қасос гирем» сар бардошта, ба атрофи худ аз ҳар табақа тарафдорони бисёре ҷамъ карда тавонист. Инчунин гурӯҳҳои зардуштиён ва хуррамиҳо  (пайравони таълимоти Маздак) ба ӯ ҳамроҳ шуданд. «Одамони сурхалам»  , яъне ононе, ки дар таҳти байрақи сурх гирд омада буданд, низ номи хуррамиҳоро доштанд. Шӯриш ноҳияҳои бузург, аз ҷумла Хуросон ва Табаристонро фаро гирифт. Аббосиён ин шӯришро фақат бо машаққати зиёде хобониданд. Сумбод шикаст хӯрда, дар Рай қатл гардид ва зану фарзандони ӯ ба ғуломӣ фурӯхта шуданд. Пас аз мағлубияти Сумбод пайравони ӯ аз тариқати муслимия ба таври пинҳонӣ фаъолияти худро давом медоданд. Онҳо ваъз мекарданд, ки Абӯмуслим боз хоҳад омад, то «дар ҷаҳон одилона ҳукмронӣ кунад».

Ҳанӯз қӯшуни арабҳо шӯриши Сумбодро тамоман фурӯ нанишонда, дар гирду атрофи Ҳирот шӯриши дигар ба вуҷуд омад, ки ба он «Устод Сис» ном шахсе роҳбарӣ менамуд. Ба ин шӯриш ҳазорҳо кас иштирок карда буданд.

Беш аз пеш ба қашшоқӣ ва хонавайронӣ дучор гардидани аҳолии заҳматкаш ва рӯидани ҳисси танаффури онон нисбат ба золимони худ дар аҳди халифа Маҳдӣ (775–785) ҷунбиши бузурги халқиро бар зидди Аббосиён ба вуҷуд овард, ки дар солҳои 70-уми асри VIII тамоми Мовароуннаҳрро фаро гирифта буд.

Дар сари ин шӯриш Муқаннаъ  меистод. Муқаннаъ аслан аз Марв буда, ба пешаварӣ машғулият дошт. Баъзе сарчашмаҳои таърихӣ  хабар медиҳанд, ки ӯ яке аз сарлашкарони Абӯмуслим буд ва дар неҳзати зидди хилофати Умавиҳо иштирок дошт. Ӯ шахси соҳибмаърифате буд. Чунин фикр беасос нест, ки дар вай ғояи маздакиён таъсири хеле калоне дошт ва ӯ ин ғояро таблиғ мекард. Қоиммақоми арабҳо аз таблиғоти Муқаннаъ воқиф гардида, ӯро дастгир намуд ва ҳамчун як марди ҷинояткори гузарои давлатӣ барои муҳокима ба маркази хилофат – шаҳри Бағдод фиристод. Лекин Муқаннаъ аз зиндони Бағдод фирор карда, худро ба Марв расонид. Дар ин ҷо тарафдорони худро ҷамъ намуда, дар соли 776 онҳоро барои даъват намудани аҳолӣ ба муборизаи зидди зулму асорати аҷнабиён ба тамоми ноҳияҳои Осиёи Миёна равона кард. Ин тарғибот махсусан дар Насаф ва Кеш, ки дар ин ҷоҳо бештар суғдиён иқомат мекарданд, муваффақияти калоне пайдо кард.

Маъмурони халифа боз аз паси дастгир кардани Муқаннаъ афтоданд. Онҳо дар соҳили дарёи Аму як дастаи пуршумори савораҳои мусаллаҳро гузоштанд, то рӯзу шаб назорат карда, нагузоранд, ки Муқаннаъ аз Марв ба Суғд равад. Ин, албатта, бесабаб набуд. Зеро дар Суғд тарафдорони ӯ рӯз аз рӯз зиёд мешуданд. Ҳокимони маҳаллӣ ба хубӣ медонистанд, ки агар Муқаннаъ ба Мовароуннаҳр роҳ ёбад, вазъияти онҳо фавқулодда душвор хоҳад шуд. Бо вуҷуди он ҳама мамониатҳо Муқаннаъ бо ҳамроҳии даҳҳо тарафдорони худ аз дарёи Аму гузашта, ба Суғд паноҳ бурд.

Дар ин вақт, чи навъе ки Наршахӣ мегӯяд: «андар Суғд ағлаб деҳаҳо ба дини Муқаннаъ даромаданд ва аз деҳаҳои Бухоро бисёр кофир шуданд ва куфр ошкоро карданд ва ин фитна азим шуд ва бало бар мусулмонон сахт шуд».

Наршахӣ дар бораи неҳзати Муқаннаъ сухан ронда, нисбат ба пешвои шӯриш назари душманона доштани худро рӯйрост қайд кардааст. Ин тариқа рафтор намудан нисбат ба Муқаннаъ барои ҳамаи муаррихони феодалӣ хос мебошад.

Сабаби асосии мавриди эътирофи омма қарор гирифтани таълимоти Муқаннаъ дар ин буд, ки ин таълимот бартараф намудани нобаробарии молӣ ва мулкиро талаб карда, бар зидди ҳукмронии истилокорони араб нигаронида шуда буд.

Дере нагузашт, ки ҷунбиши Муқаннаъ ба як шӯриши бузурги ошкоро мубаддал гардида, дар муддати кӯтоҳе тамоми Мовароуннаҳрро фаро гирифт. Ситоди (штаби) шӯришчиён дар деҳаи Наршах, наздикии Бухоро, воқеъ шуда буд. Ҳокими Бухоро Ҳусайн ибни Муоз тамоми қувваи ҳарбии худро, ки асосан аз арабҳо иборат буд, ҷамъ карда, бо ҳамроҳии дастаҳои аъёну ашрофи Бухоро ба муқобили шӯришчиён ҳаракат намуд. Дар моҳи апрели соли 776 дар назди девори деҳаи Наршах байни қӯшуни арабҳо ва тарафдорони Муқаннаъ муҳорибаи шадиде ба миён омад. Шӯришиён шикаст хӯрда, 700 нафар аз пайравони Муқаннаъ сари худро дар роҳи талаби озодихоҳӣ қурбон карданд. Лекин ғалабаи арабҳо вазъиятро ба таври асосӣ тағйир дода натавонист. Ба зудӣ шӯриш боз бо қувваи тоза сар зада, қиёмкунандагон мавзеъҳои атрофи Бухороро ба таҳти тасарруфи худ дароварданд.

Халифа Маҳдӣ чун дид, ки шӯриш торафт вусъат пайдо мекунад, барои пурқувват кардани муборизаи зидди неҳзати Муқаннаъ дар як сурати таъҷилӣ аз Бағдод ба Нишопур омад ва ба амири Хуросон фармон дод, ки барои кӯмаки ҳокими Бухоро фавран қувваи иловагӣ фиристонад.

Сардори қӯшуни имдодии аз Хуросон фиристодаи арабҳо Ҷабраил ибни Яҳё муддати дуру дароз Наршахро дар ҳолати муҳосира нигоҳ дошт, вале аз ин натиҷае ҳосил нашуд. Шӯришчиён бо ҳамлаҳои пай дар пайи худ қувваи ҳарбии Ҷабраилро чунон заиф карданд, ки ӯ дигар бидуни қувваи иловагӣ ҷангро давом дода натавонист. Дар ҳамин вақт қӯшуни ҳафтҳазорнафараи халифа аз Балх расида омада бошад ҳам, вале сардорони он муваффақиятҳои шӯришчиёнро дида, ҳатто барои дохил шудан ба муҳориба ҷуръат накарданд. Ниҳоят, қувваи эҳтиётии амири Хуросон, ки мебоист нафароти қӯшуни ба Мовароуннаҳр фиристодаи халифаро ду баробар меафзуд, ба имдод омад. Аммо ин ҳам самарае набахшид – шӯришчиён ин қувваи ҳарбии арабҳоро ҳанӯз дар роҳи Мовароуннаҳр ба куллӣ торумор намуданд. Вазъияти Ҷабраил ибни Яҳё ниҳоятдараҷа пурхатар гардид. Роҳи алоқаи ӯ аз Балх ва Марв бурида шуда буд. Ҷабраил тамоми қувва ва техникаи ҳарбии дар ихтиёри худ доштаашро ба гирифтани истеҳкоми Наршах, ки дар ин ҷо қувваи асосии шӯришиён ҷамъ шуда буд, равона кард. Қӯшуни арабҳо чор моҳ беҳуда Наршахро муҳосира намуд. Дар охир ҳар ду тараф, ки аз задухӯрдҳои муттасил хеле хаста шуда буданд, барои сулҳ кардан дохили музокирот гардиданд.

Сардорони қӯшуни арабҳо дар вақти бастани муоҳидаи сулҳ яке аз роҳбарони шӯришро хиёнаткорона куштанд. Онҳо умедвор буданд, ки ба ин восита шӯришро бесар карда, мақсадро ба даст хоҳанд овард. Вале ин кори онҳо натиҷаи акс дод. Кушта шудани як нафар аз роҳбарони шӯриш муқовимати шӯришиёнро чандин баробар зиёд кард.

Сарчашмаҳои таърихии араб тасдиқ мекунанд, ки охируламр шӯришиёни Наршах мағлуб шуданд, лекин, дар айни замон, шӯриш беш аз пеш вусъат ёфта, ноҳияҳои тозаи Осиёи Миёнаро фаро мегирифт. Ин оғози марҳалаи дувуми мубориза буд.

Агар дар марҳалаи аввал баъзе гурӯҳҳои ашрофияи Суғд аз неҳзати Муқаннаъ пуштибонӣ карда бошанд, пас дар марҳалаи дувум онҳо аз тарси вусъати ҷунбиши халқ комилан ба тарафи хилофат гузаштанд. Аммо табақаҳои васеи барзгари Суғд торафт бештар ба сафи муборизон дохил мешуданд.

«Сафедҷомагон» (пайравони Муқаннаъ) соҳибони Мовароуннаҳр мегардиданд ва «бӯстони амиралмӯъминин» (Хуросон ва Мовароуннаҳрро бо ин ном ёд мекарданд) ба як мамлакати аз хилофати араб мустақил табдил меёфт.

Халифа Маҳдӣ қоиммақоми Хуросонро ба ноӯҳдабароӣ айбдор намуда, маъзул кард ва ба ҷои ӯ Муоз ибни Муслимро ба сари ҳокимият овард. Муоз ибни Муслим дар соли 778 дар навоҳии байни Бухоро ва Марв қӯшуни зиёде ҷамъ намуда, ба кӯмаки қӯшуни арабҳо, ки дар назди Самарқанд аз дасти шӯ-ришиён ба аҳволи басе душвор афтода буд, равон шуд. Лекин ин лашкарка-шии Муоз ибни Муслим низ, бо вуҷуди он ки аз тарафи ашрофи маҳаллӣ хеле ҳимоят медид, бо шикасти нангин анҷом ёфт. Шӯришиён дар дашти назди Пайканд ба лашкари Муоз рӯ ба рӯ шуда, ба он чанд зарбаи сахт ворид оварданд. Дар натиҷаи ин Муоз ибни Муслим ҳаракати худро ба Самарқанд давом дода натавониста, ба тарафи Бухоро майл намуд.

Фақат дар соли оянда ба қӯшунҳои халифа муяссар гардид, ки Самарқандро забт намоянд. Бо ҳамин марҳалаи севум ва охирини мубориза сар шуд.

Дар ин вақт қувваҳои асосии шӯришиён дар қалъаи кӯҳии Санам, наздикии Кеш, ҷамъ омада буданд. Муоз ин қалъаро муҳосира намуд, вале ба зудӣ маҷбур шуд, ки аз муҳосира даст кашад. Муаррихони араб тасдиқ мекунанд, ки сабаби аз муҳосира даст кашидани Муоз расидани фасли зимистон буд. Лекин сабаби асосии ин шояд ба зарбаи сахти дастаҳои Муқаннаъ дучор гардидани ӯ бошад. Ба зудӣ пас аз ин воқеа аз мансаби қоиммақоми Хуросон дур карда шудани ӯ ва аз тарафи халифа таъин гардидани шахси дигар ин фикрро собит менамояд.

Чунон ки Наршахӣ мегӯяд, Муоз ибни Муслим ду соли тамом бар зидди Муқаннаъ мубориза бурд. Волии нави Хуросон Мусайяб ибни Зуҳайр ҳам аз ҷиҳати лавозимоти ҷанг пурра таъмин будан ва ҳам хеле зиёдтар аскар доштани худро истифода бурда, ба туфайли ҳамин афзалияти калони худ баъди задухӯрдҳои хунини дурудароз тавонист муқобилати оммаи халқро, ки ба он Муқаннаъ роҳбарӣ мекард, бартараф намояд. Тобистони соли 780 қӯшуни арабҳо қалъаеро, ки Муқаннаъ дар он ҷо иқомат менамуд, забт карданд ва аз мудофиакунандагони қалъа ҳар касе, ки ба дасташон афтод, ба қатл расониданд. Аммо худи Муқаннаъ таслим шудан нахоста, худро ба қатл расонид. Пас аз марги ӯ низ дар зарфи чандин сол шӯришҳои ҷудогонаи «сафедҷомагон» дар маҳалҳои мухталифи Осиёи Миёна ба амал меомаданд.

Дар он солҳое, ки мардуми Мовароуннаҳр дар роҳи истиқлолияти худ мубориза мебурданд, хилофати араб аз пуриқтидортарин давлатҳои он замон ҳисоб мешуд. Муборизае, ки аҳолии ин сарзамин дар таҳти байрақи Муқаннаъ солҳои бисёр бо чунин як давлати муқтадир бурданд, дар бораи диловарӣ ва озодидӯстии халқҳои Осиёи Миёна боз як мисоли дурахшон аст.

Чунон ки мудовимат ва муташаккилии ин мубориза нишон медиҳад, Муқаннаъ роҳбари хеле боистеъдоди ҳарбӣ ва сиёсӣ буд, ки халқро ба ҷанги зидди истилокорони аҷнабӣ ва золимони маҳаллӣ ташвиқ ва рӯҳбаланд мекард.

Дар хотима ҳаминро ҳам бояд гуфт, ки шӯришҳои халқии давраи хилофати Аббосиён аз шӯришҳои замони ҳукмронии Умавиҳо фарқи калоне доштанд. Шӯришҳои халқӣ дар давраи Умавиҳо асосан бар зидди ҳукмронии аҷнабиён равона шуда, ба ин шӯришҳо одатан аъён ва ашрофи маҳаллӣ сардорӣ мекард. Аммо дар давраи хилофати Аббосиён мо тамоман як вазъияти дигареро мушоҳида мекунем. Дар ин давра оммаи халқ на фақат ба муқобили Аббосиён, балки бар алайҳи ҳомиёни онҳо, яъне аъён ва ашрофи маҳаллӣ низ сар мебардоштанд.

Неҳзати Муқаннаъ неҳзати табақаҳои заҳматкаши аҳолӣ ва қабл аз ҳама, барзгарон буда, яке аз равияҳои асосии онро мубориза бар зидди асорати беш аз пеш қувватгирандаи феодалӣ ташкил мекард. Ин аст, ки шӯриши Муқаннаъ дар таърихи халқҳои Осиёи Миёна аҳамияти бузургеро дарбар кардааст. Ҳарчанд шӯришҳои халқӣ шикаст мехӯрданд, вале фаъолияти оммаи заҳматкашро инкишоф дода, рӯҳи асоратнописандӣ ва озодидӯстии халқҳои Осиёи Миёнаро тарбия менамуданд ва як дараҷа дасти истисморгарони феодалии нав ба рӯи кор омадаистодаи маҳаллиро кӯтоҳ мекарданд.

 

 

Нақши халқҳои Осиёи миёна дар муборизаи байни Умавиҳо ва Аббосиён: 288 комментариев

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