Муносибатҳои иҷтимоию иқтисодии Осиёи Миёна дар замони Муғулҳо — Донишхона

Муносибатҳои иҷтимоию иқтисодии Осиёи Миёна дар замони Муғулҳо

Категорияҳои моликияти замин. Суюрғол

Муносибати иҷтимоию иқтисодии замони муғулҳо, таъсири истило ва фармонфармоии онҳо ба созмонҳои гуногуни иҷтимоию иқтисодии давлати ҳулокуиҳо ҳаматарафа омӯхта шудааст.  Албатта, мушоҳида ва хулосаҳои муаррихони Эронро ба таври механикӣ ба шароити Осиёи Миёна татбиқ кардан мумкин нест, лекин ин материалҳо барои фаҳмидан ва дарк кардани баъзе мадракҳои ғайримустақими оид ба як қатор созмонҳои иҷтимоию иқтисодии онвақтаи Осиёи Миёна кӯмак мерасонанд.

Бояд қайд кард, ки муаррихон барои аз ҳамин нуқтаи назар ба таври конкретӣ-таърихӣ тадқиқ намудани худи Осиёи Миёна ҳанӯз хеле кам кор кардаанд. Яке аз сабабҳои ин ҳолат сустӣ ва маҳдудияти асосҳои маъхазши-носист. Пеш аз ҳама, ба ҷустуҷӯ ва омӯзиши сарчашмаҳои маҳаллӣ бояд диққати махсус дод. Тадқиқи вақфномаҳои солҳои 1299 ва 1326-1333, ҳамчу-нин мушоҳидаҳои О.Д.Чехович доир ба мафҳуми баъзе истилоҳот то чи андо-за аҳамият ва ояндаи хуб доштани ин ҷиҳати масъаларо нишон медиҳанд.

Аз ин санадҳо маълум мегардад, ки дар замони муғулҳо заминҳои вақфии Осиёи Миёна на фақат барҳам нахӯрд, балки вазни нисбии онҳо, зоҳиран, зиёдатар гардид. Хонҳои муғул, бо баъзе истисно, ба мардуми ин сарзамин озодии ақоиди мазҳабӣ медоданд. Онҳо аксар вақт рӯҳониёнро (аз ҷумла, рӯҳониёни исломро) аз пардохтани андозу хироҷ озод мекарданд. Ҳатто дар вақтҳои истило ва ғорати саросари мардум молу мулки рӯҳониён эмин мемонд. Албатта, ҳангоми тохтутозҳои истилокорона, ҷангҳои бай-нихудӣ ва ҳуҷумҳои ғоратгаронаи муғулҳо заминҳои вақф ҳам мисли дигар заминҳо зери по монда, хароб мешуданд. Аммо худи ин категорияи замин мавҷудияти худро ҳамоно давом медод. Агар ин ҳам ба назар гирифта шавад, ки муғулҳо то Кабакхон ба идораи Осиёи Миёна дахолат намекарданд ва кӯшишҳои ба даст даровардани заминро надоштанд, мумкин аст ба чунин хулосае омад, ки фонди заминҳои вақф пас аз истилои муғулҳо кам нашуда-аст. Дар баробари ба ҳолати муқаррарӣ даромадани ҳаёти хоҷагӣ ин фонд боз ҳам метавонист афзояд, ки дар ин бора вақфномаҳои дар боло зикршуда шаҳодат медиҳанд. Дар соли 1299 Абдурраҳим Муҳаммад ном як шахси давлатманди исфиҷобӣ деҳаеро бо заминҳои шодобаш харида, хуб иморат кард ва ҳамаи инро ба вақф табдил дода, идораи онро ба зиммаи худ ва авло-ди худ гузошт. Дар соли 1326 набераи Сайфиддини Бохарзӣ як ноҳияи та-момро аз тарафи ҷанубу шарқи Бухоро ба фоидаи мақбара ва хонақоҳи бо-бояш тақдим намуд. Чанде пештар аз ин хонзодахоними муғул Сиюркӯктенӣ маблағи калонеро ба сохтмони мадрасаи Бухоро (мадрасаи Хония) тахсис дода, онро бо вақфҳо таъмин кард. Ҳокими тоҷир Масъудбек низ дар Бухоро мадрасае сохт, ки бо номи мадрасаи Масъудия машҳур аст ва қабри Масъудбек ҳам дар он ҷост. Мулкҳои вақфи ин мадрасаҳо бояд хеле зиёд бошанд, зеро фақат талабаҳо дар ҳар яке аз онҳо, гӯё ки ба ҳазор нафар мерасидаанд.

Аз эҳтимол дур нест, ки баъзе кӯшишҳои азхуд кардани заминҳои вақф низ зоҳир гардида бошад. Аз ин рӯ, яке аз шартҳои вақфдиҳандагон, ки ба ҳокимон ва амалдорон иҷора надодани милки вақфро таъкид кардаанд ва он дар вақфномаи соли 1326 зикр ёфтааст, беасос наменамояд.

Дар ин санад ғайр аз заминҳои вақф ҳангоми тавсифи қитъаҳои ба вақф дохилнашуда боз се категорияи замин: милк (мулки хос), мамлакаи инҷу ва мамлакаи девон ном бурда шудааст. Вазни нисбии ҳар кадоми ин катего-рияҳо дар Осиёи Миёнаи аҳди муғул маълум нест. Ҳам мулки деҳқон ва ҳам мулки феодал дар феҳристи расмии фақеҳон замини милк номида шудааст. Давраи истило ва ҳукмронии муғулҳо ин ду навъи мулкро аз байн набурд. Ба ин сабаб онҳоро мо дар замонҳои баъди муғулҳо низ дучор меорем. Дар давлати Ҳулокуиҳо заминҳое, ки ба сардори давлат, аҳли хонадон ва вас-салҳои ӯ тааллуқ доштанд, замини инҷу номида мешуд. Метавонистанд ин гуна заминро ба тариқи хизматона тақдим кунанд, ба вақф диҳанд, тӯҳфа кунанд, бифурӯшанд ва ғ. Ба фикри И.П.Петрушевский розӣ нашудан мум-кин нест, ки ӯ замини инҷуро бо милк муқоиса карда, ҳардуро мутааллиқ ба як категория медонист, фақат бо чунин тафовут, ки замини инҷу дар ихтиёри сардори давлат, хонадони ӯ ва тобеонаш буду милк дар дасти ҳар шахси алоҳида . Албатта, заминҳои инҷу аз андоз озод буданд. Лекин гоҳо аз за-минҳои милк ҳам андоз гирифта намешуд. Заминҳои инҷуи Эрон аз за-минҳои дар вақти истило ва пас аз мусодирашудаи феодалони маҳаллӣ ва, инчунин аз ҳисоби коммендатсия (замини худро «ба таҳти ҳимояи» яке аз аъзои сулола вогузоштани шахсони ҷудогона) фароҳам омада, захираи онҳо хеле бузург буд. Зоҳиран, заминҳои инҷуи Осиёи Миёна аз заминҳои инҷуи Эрон фарқи казоӣ надоштанд. Лекин мумкин аст, ки вазни нисбӣ ва роҳҳои ба вуҷуд омадани онҳо андаке аз ҳам тафовут кунад. Инро ҳам бояд ба назар гирифт, ки фақат Кабакхон ва баъзе ворисони ӯ дар сарзамини Мовароун-наҳр ба таври устувор ҷой гирифтанд. Дар ин вақт муносибат бо аҳолии муқимӣ ва тартиботи маҳаллӣ назар ба давраи истило ва даҳсолаҳои аввали он тамоман дигаргун гардида буд. Аз ин рӯ, мумкин аст чунин тахмин кард, ки дар шароити Осиёи Миёна мусодира роҳи асосии пайдоиш ва афзоиши заминҳои инҷу набуд ва умуман захираи ин қабил замин дар ин ҷо он қадар аҳамият надошт. Ҳангоми тадқиқи боз ҳам дақиқтар ва муфассалтари ин масъала, ба қадре ки сарчашма ва маъхазҳо имкон медиҳанд, хариди за-минҳои милкро, ки эҳтимол, василаи пур кардани захираи заминҳои инҷу бошад, набояд аз назар соқит намуд. Дар давраҳои дертари Осиёи Миёна чунин ҳодисаҳое маълуманд, ки подшоҳон маҳз заминҳои милкро ба як та-риқаи муқаррарӣ бо хату мӯҳри қозихона ба расмият дароварда мехари-данд.

Замини девон замини давлатӣ ба шумор мерафт. Пас, маълум мешавад, ки дар Осиёи Миёнаи замони муғулҳо аз рӯи ҳаққи моликият чор категорияи замин: 1) замини давлатӣ, 2) милки феодалӣ ва инҷу, 3) замини вақф ва 4) милки деҳқон мавҷуд будааст.

Шубҳае нест, ки дар замони ҳукмронии муғулҳо дар Осиёи Миёна, мисли Эрон, усули подошҳои феодалӣ вуҷуд дошта, беш аз пеш равнақ пайдо ме-кард. Дар Эрони онвақта ин подошҳоро бо истилоҳи кӯҳнаи арабӣ иқтаъ ва ё бо истилоҳи нави муғулӣ суюрғол меномиданд. Ҳам иқтаъ ва ҳам суюрғол мумкин буд хурд ё калон бошад. Дар вақтҳои аввал иқтаъро бештар саркар-даҳои ҳарбӣ соҳиб гардида, сарбозони қаторӣ бошанд, ба ивази хизмат мол ё пул мегирифтанд. Аммо дар аҳди Ғазанхон ноҳияҳои тамом ба тариқи иқтаъ ба сарбозони муғул тахсис дода шуданд. Ин навъи иқтаъ аз қисматҳои хурди мутааллиқ ба шахсони ҷудогона иборат набуда, балки масоҳати калонеро ташкил мекард, ки ба як воҳиди қӯшун дода мешуд. Амири ҳазорӣ ин зами-ни иқтаъро байни амирони садӣ ва амирони садӣ дар навбати худ байни амирони даҳӣ тақсим мекарданд. Иқтаъ на фақат ҳаққи ба замин ва тамоми даромадҳои он, ба об ва одамони сокини он маҳал доштаи соҳиби худро маҳфуз менамуд, балки ҳамчун мулки меросӣ ҳисоб ёфта, ба иқтаъдор им-кони бо тамоми салоҳият аз тобеони худ хироҷ ситониданро ҳам медод.

Суюрғол ифодаи равшантар ва шакли комилтари ҳукмронии феодали ғосиб (турк ё муғул) нисбат ба зироаткорони муқимӣ ҳисоб мешуд, ки дар худ маънии варосат ва масунияти пурраи андозу молиёт ва судиву идоравиро низ нуҳуфта буд. Ба суюрғолҳои калон мулкҳои фарогирандаи, ҳам воҳаҳои ободи зироатӣ ва ҳам даштҳои ҳомун дохил мешуданд.

Масъалаи подошҳои феодалӣ дар Осиёи Миёна ҳанӯз бар асоси матери-алҳои конкрети таърихӣ мавриди тадқиқи ҳамаҷониба қарор нагирифтааст. Танҳо ҳамин як чиз маълум аст, ки Хуҷанд барои ҷалоириҳо, ноҳияи Қашқадарё барои барлосҳо, ноҳияи ҷануби Тоҷикистон барои қавучинҳо мулкҳои ба тариқи подош соҳибшуда, иқтаъ ё суюрғолҳои онҳо ба шумор мерафтанд.

Категорияҳои деҳқонон.

Масъалаи сохти крепостноӣ. Ғуломӣ

Деҳқонон дар замони муғулҳо, мисли пештара ва давраҳои баъдина, гу-ногунтаркиб буданд. Гурӯҳе аз онҳо дорои имтиёз ва моликияти хусусӣ буда, ба давлат назар ба дигарон камтар андоз мепардохтанд (зоҳиран, ин ҳамон қисмати асосии аҳолист, ки дар натиҷаи хонахароб ва нобудшавӣ миқдоран хеле кам монда буд). Миқдори хеле зиёди деҳқонон заминро иҷора меги-рифтанд, ё худ ҳамчун барзгари кироя дар замини доро кор мекарданд. Ин қабил деҳқонон дар вақфномаи соли 1326 бо номи музореъ ёд шудаанд. Аз рӯи маълумоти ҳамин вақфнома, деҳқонони иҷоранишини заминҳои зироа-тии вақф сеяки ҳосилро медоданд. Аммо махсус таъкид шуда буд, ки замини вақф аз ду сол зиёдтар ба иҷора дода намешавад.

Мадракҳои ғайримустақими давраҳои баъдтар водор мекунанд чунин тасаввур намоем, ки истилои муғул бақияҳои обшинагӣ – категорияҳои деҳқононро, ки аз насл ба насл дар як деҳа зиндагонӣ карда, соҳиби ҳуқуқи «иҷораи доимӣ» ва баъзе дигар ҳуқуқу вазифаҳои умумӣ ва ба ҳам алоқамандкунанда буданд, аз байн набурдааст.

Дар асрҳои ХV–ХVI чунин бозмондаҳои «обшинаи деҳқонон» дар катего-рияҳои гуногуни замин: замини давлат, замини милк ва замини вақф дида мешуданд. Аммо чигунагии ин ҳолат дар асрҳои ХIII–ХIV маълум нест.

Дар вақфномаи соли 1326 боз як категорияи деҳқонон ёд шудааст, ки он-ро кадевар меномиданд. Кадеварҳо асосан ба парвариши боғоти милк машғулӣ доштанд. Вале аз ин санад равшан нест, ки аҳволи онҳо аз аҳволи деҳқонони иҷоранишин чи тафовуте дорад ва муносибати онҳо бо соҳибони замин чи гуна аст. Зимнан, хидмати боғоти милкро на фақат кадеварҳо, бал-ки боғбонҳо низ баҷо меоварданд. Инро ҳам бояд қайд кард, ки бар тибқи санади мазкур, киштукори заминҳои вақфро ғуломон ҳам, ки аз тарафи вақфдиҳандагон озод карда, ба замин нишонда шуда буданд, анҷом медо-данд.

Онҳо ҳақ надоштанд, ки замини вақфро тарк кунанд, дигар аз ҳар ҷиҳат бо деҳқонони иҷоранишин яксон буданд, зеро онҳо низ дар ҳамон шароити пардохти сеяк ҳиссаи ҳосилро додан хизмат мекарданд.

Ба замин вобаста шудани ғуломон ҳанӯз барои сухан рондан аз усули крепостноӣ дар Осиёи Миёна асосе намедиҳад. Дар Эрони замони муғулҳо деҳқононро ба замин побанд намуда, аз ҷое ба ҷои дигар кӯчиданро манъ мекарданд ва аз миёнаҳои асри ХIII сар карда, деҳқонони кӯчидаро ба ҷойҳои пештараи худ бозмегардонидагӣ шуданд. Ярлиқи Ғазанхон аз таърихи соли 1303 инро фақат тасдиқ намуд. Хеле муҳим аст, ки ин на фақат ба деҳқонони иҷоранишини заминҳои иқтаъ, балки ба деҳқонони дар заминҳои милк ни-шаста низ тааллуқ дошт. И.П.Петрушевский чунин мешуморад, ки ин ҳолат ба тамоми деҳқонони дар ҳар гуна замин нишаста дахл менамуд. Сабабҳои асосии ба заминҳо нишонда мондани деҳқонон ин буд: агар пештар барои нуфуси сершумор замини корам намерасида бошад, пас аз қатлу ғорати ис-тилокорони муғул миқдори аҳолӣ ва замини зироат хеле кам шуд ва бар замми ин, дар натиҷаи истисмори бераҳмонаи хусусан ашрофи ҳарбии фео-далӣ деҳқонон ба ҳар тараф фирор намуда, аксари заминҳо нокишта монд. Ин буд, ки хонҳои муғул аз рӯи манфиати давлат ва феодалон, ки нигоҳ до-штани деҳқононро ҳамчун адокунандаи андозу хироҷ, яъне манбаи даромад тақозо мекард, сиёсати ба замин баста мондани деҳқононро ҷорӣ намуданд. Ин сиёсат боз аз он сабаб ҳам пеш гирифта шуд, ки вай ба нуктаҳои асосии Ясои чингизӣ, ки ба пешвоёни худ комилан мутеъ будани мардуми бодия-нишин ва қатъан мумкин набудани ҳаракати худсаронаи онҳоро талқин ме-кард, мутобиқат дошт.

Шароити Осиёи Миёна низ ба ҳамин минвол буд. Дар ин ҷо ҳам миқдори аҳолӣ ва замини зироат кам шуда, хоҷагии деҳқонон хароб ва зулму ис-тисмор афзунтар мегардид. Дар ҳамон навоҳии Осиёи Миёна (аз қабили Туркманистони ҷанубӣ), ки ба ҳайъати давлати Ҳулокуиҳо дохил мешуданд, мисли дигар вилоятҳои ин давлат ҳодисаи ба замин побанд карда мондани деҳқонон ба таомул даромада буд. Аммо мадракҳои аниқе, ки ба мавҷудияти усули крепостноӣ дар давлати чағатоӣ, дар хиттаи Мовароуннаҳр ва вило-ятҳои дар қисмати шарқӣ воқеъгардида далолат мекарда бошанд, дар дасти мо нест.

Бинобар ин ҳоло вақти ҳалли ин масъала нарасидааст. Дар ин маврид баъзе хусусиятҳои аз Эрон фарқкунандаи ташкили идораи Мовароуннаҳрро низ бояд ба эътибор гирифт. Чунон ки борҳо хотирнишон гардид, худи муғулҳо дар асри ХIII ба кори идораи мамлакат дахолат намекарданд ва ху-дашон қитъаи замин ва иқтаъ надоштанд. Даромади мамлакатро ба воситаи ҳокимони тоҷир (Маҳмуди Ялавоч, Масъудбек ва писарони ӯ) ҷамъ мекар-данд ва ин даромад барои ҳамаи он муғулоне, ки ин қисмати Осиёи Миёна ба онҳо тааллуқ дошт, умумӣ буд. Ин аст, ки он вақт дар назди хонзодаҳо ва аъёну ашрофи муғул масъалаи чи тавр ва аз ки рӯёнидани оидоти замин, дар ҷои худ будан ё фирор кардани деҳқонон ҳеҷ аҳамияте надошт. Албатта, дар асри ХIV ин ҳолат дигар шуд. Вале дар ин маврид ишораи вақфномаи соли 1326-ро дар бораи ин, ки заминро, дар сурати ободу шодоб буданаш ҳам, ба деҳқонон аз ду сол бештар ба иҷора дода нашавад, набояд аз назар соқит кард.

Алалахусус, ин ҷо сухан аз воҳаи Бухоро меравад, ки дар солҳои 1273 ва 1276 тамоман хароб шуда, то соли 1326 ҳам дар ҳар сари қадам кӯшкҳои вайрон ва боғоти ба харобазор табдилёфтаро дучор меомаданд.

Аҳволи пешаварон

Сиёсати ба қайди асорат даровардани аҳолӣ, ки муғулҳо ҷорӣ мекарданд, махсусан дар муносибати онҳо бо пешаварон возеҳу равшан зоҳир мегардад. Дар ин бобат шаҳодати яке аз маъхазҳо хеле ҷолиб аст. Тақрибан соли 1262 қосиди Қубилойхон дар Бухоро пас аз ҳисобу бароварди дубора тақсимоти зеринро муқаррар намуд: аз 16 ҳазор бухориён 5 ҳазор кас ба Боту (яъне Ҷуҷиён) ва 3 ҳазор кас ба Сиюркӯктенибегӣ (модари Ҳулокухон, Мангухон ва Қубилойхон) тааллуқ дошта, қисмати боқимондаи онҳо дар ихтиёри қоон, яъне сардори муғулҳо буданд, ки ӯ бо онҳо ҳамчун моли шахсии худ муноси-бат мекард. Дар соли 1263 Ҳулокухон, ки бо Ҷуҷиён ҷанг мекард, ба беруни шаҳр бароварда, сар буридани 5 ҳазор аҳолии ба ин хонадон тааллуқдоштаи Бухороро фармуд ва дар ин ҳангом на андешаи молумулк ва на раҳме нисбат ба зану кӯдакони онҳо дар дили ӯ пайдо нашуд. Муҳаққиқон дуруст тахмин мекунанд, ки инҳо пешавароне буданд, ки ба ихтиёри хонҳои муғул дода шуда, шахсан ба онҳо итоат мекарданд ва хизмати онҳоро ба ҷо меовар-данд.

Плано Карпини ду гурӯҳ пешаваронро ёд мекунад: «Дар мулки саратси-онҳо ва дигарон, ки дар ин миён онҳо (муғулҳо.–Б. Ғ.) гӯё ки ҳокиманд, ҳамаи беҳтарин пешаваронро соҳибӣ карда, ба тамоми корҳои худ истифода меба-ранд… ба ҳар яке ҳар рӯз нони баркаш ва ҳафтае се бор порае гӯшт медиҳанд. Инро ҳам ба он пешавароне раво мебинанд, ки дар шаҳр иқомат доранд» . Аз ин гуфтаҳо чунин бармеояд, ки як гурӯҳ пешаварони шаҳр ҳаёти ғуломона ба сар мебурдаанд, маҳсулоти бавуҷудовардаи онҳоро дигарон соҳиб шуда, ба ивазаш ҳар рӯз ба онҳо хӯроки бадаста медодаанд; гурӯҳи дигари пешава-рони шаҳр, ки озод ё ғулом буданашон маълум нест, бо ихтиёри худ кор кар-да, аз оидоти касбашон андоз мепардохтаанд.

Рашиддадин ҳам ҳангоми ном бурдани тадбироти бевосита ба Осиёи Миёна дахлдоштаи Мангуқоон, зоҳиран, дар, бораи ҳамин гурӯҳи пешаварон сухан рондааст: «…Мангуқоон фармуд, ки мардуми авом аз (қабили) тоҷирон, дӯкондорон ва косибон ба дастёрони худ лутфу марҳамат намоянд ва ба (онон) аз неъмати худ бахшоянд, то ҳар яке маблағи лозимаро аз ин му-омила ба қадри дарёфти худ бипардозанд».

Аҳволи пешаварони Осиёи Миёна ба як минвол набуд ва дар зарфи ду аср ҳамеша тағйир ёфта меистод. Аз манбаъҳои хаттӣ маълум мегардад, ки бисёр пешаварон ба вазъияти ғуломӣ дучор карда шудаанд. Дар овони исти-лои Осиёи Миёна муғулҳо умуман як қисми пешаваронро ба Муғулистон ронда бурдаанд. Баъдтар дар шаҳрҳои Эрон ва Осиёи Миёна корхонаҳои ҳу-нармандие ба вуҷуд омаданд, ки ба табақаи ҳокими муғулҳо тааллуқ дошта, дар он ҷо пешаварон мисли ғулом кор мекарданд. Дар баробари ин пешава-рони мамлук ҳам ба мисли гурӯҳи дар боло зикршудаи Бухоро вуҷуд до-штанд, ки ба ихтиёри худ кор карда, дар айни замон, ба хонҳои муғул вобаста гардида буданд ва аз касбу тиҷорати худ ба онҳо андоз медоданд. Гурӯҳи нис-батан озоди пешаварон ва тоҷироне низ мавҷуд буданд, ки ба хазинаи ҳуку-мати марказӣ андоз (тамға) мепардохтанд. Зоҳиран, миқдори ин гуна пеша-варон торафт меафзуд. Бояд қайд кард, ки андозро аз онҳо маъмурони девон ва ё иҷорадорон ҷамъ мекарданд.

Албатта, чунин гумон кардан, ки муғулҳо пешаваронро асир карда ва ба ғуломиву бардагӣ дучор намуда, гӯё боиси тамоман аз байн рафтани ташки-лоти пешаварӣ низ гардида бошанд, ҳеҷ як асосе надорад. Баробари таҷдиди сохтмони шаҳрҳои харобшуда ва эҳёи истеҳсолоти молӣ мебоист, инчунин коргоҳу устохонаҳои ҳунармандӣ ҳам дубора барқарор гардида, рӯ ба та-раққӣ мениҳод.

Яке аз ҳодисаҳои нангини ҳукмфармоии истилокорони муғул афзоиши ҷанбаи ғуломдорист. Муғулҳо на фақат пешаваронро, балки тамоми аҳолии маҳалҳои ғасбкардаи худро ба ғулом табдил медоданд ва онҳоро дар хоҷагӣ, аз ҷумла, дар зироат ба таври васеъ кор мефармуданд. Дар бозори ғулом одамони ҳар қавму миллатро мефурӯхтанд. Чун меҳнати ғуломи нисбат ба тараққиёти истеҳсолот бепарво мувофиқи чашмдошт манфиат набахшид, чи навъе ки вақфномаи соли 1326 нишон медиҳад, таҷрибаи озод кардани ғуло-мон ва ба шахси вобаста табдил додани онҳо ба кор бурда шуд.

Зиддияти асосӣ на ин ки дар миёни ашрофи феодалӣ ва аъёни бодия-нишин, балки дар байни табақаи болои феодалон, инчунин рӯҳониён, бозур-гонон ва судхӯрон, аз як тараф, деҳқонон ва бенавоёни шаҳр, аз тарафи дигар, ба амал меомад. Таъсири фишоровари рӯҳониёни ислом ба оммаи забун ва ақибмонда, хусусан роли гиҷкунандаи сӯфияи дарвешӣ ва шайхони сершу-мори он инкишофи шаклҳои бевоситаи муборизаи оммаи истисморша-вандаи тоҷикро бар зидди асоратгарони маҳаллӣ (тамоман пешгирӣ карда натавониста бошанд ҳам) бо ҳар васила бозмедоштанд.

Муносибатҳои иҷтимоию иқтисодии Осиёи Миёна дар замони Муғулҳо: 238 комментариев

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