Материалҳои археологии асри аввали оҳан — Донишхона

Материалҳои археологии асри аввали оҳан

Металлургияи оҳан

Материалҳои археологӣ бо қиёси баъзе мадракҳои забонӣ ва ҳамчунин сарчашмаҳои хаттии қадим, ки ба давраҳои баъдтар тааллуқ доранд, манза-раи ҳаёти ҷамъиятии Осиёи Миёнаи охири ҳазораи II – ибтидои ҳазораи I пеш аз милодро равшан месозанд.

Дар ибтидои ҳазораи I пеш аз милод сокинони Осиёи Миёна аз маъдан истеҳсол кардани оҳанро ёд гирифта буданд. Ф.Энгелс аҳамияти оҳанро дар таърихи ҷамъияти инсонӣ муайян намуда, навиштааст: «Оҳан аз тамоми ашёи хоме, ки дар таърих роли револютсионӣ бозидааст, охирин ва муҳим-тарин, то худи пайдо шудани картошка навтарин навъи ашёи хом буда, ба одам хизмат мекардагӣ шуд. Оҳан барои дар майдонҳои васеъ ривоҷ додани зироат ва ба мақсади киштукор тоза кардани бешаҳои паҳновар имконият фароҳам овард; вай ба дасти ҳунарманд чунон асбоби сахт ва тезе дод, ки ҳеҷ як санг ва ҳеҷ як металли то он замон маълум ба вай муқобил истода намета-вонист. Ҳамаи инҳо якбора муяссар нашудаанд; аввалин оҳани ҳосилкарда-шуда бисёр вақтҳо аз биринҷӣ ҳам мулоимтар буд» .

Шиносоӣ бо усули аз маъдан истеҳсол намудани биринҷӣ ба инсон дар бобати бо протсесси металлургӣ ба даст овардани оҳан ёрӣ расонд. Оҳан дар кӯраҳои дошӣ, ки ҳарорати он то 1300–1400° мерасид, гудохта мешуд. М.С. Андреев дар солҳои бистуми асри ХХ ҳамин гуна кӯраҳоро, ки ҳанӯз мавриди истифода буданд, дар водии Ванҷ пайдо карда буд .

Барои инсони ибтидоӣ ба моддаи сахти ёзанда мубаддал гардидани як порча санги бешакл, яъне маъдан мӯъҷизаосо ва пурасрор менамуд. Ин бои-си пайдоиши эҳтироми махсус нисбат ба оҳангару фулузсозон ва ҳар гуна биму ҳароси хурофотпарастона гардид. Дар миёни бисёр халқҳо ин навъ му-носибат то вақтҳои охир давом карда омадаааст. Чунончи, аз ҷумла дар баъзе районҳои Помир оҳангарон одами хеле мӯҳтарам ва корхонаи онҳо ҷои муқаддас дониста мешуд, мардум ба онҳо саҷда мекарданд ва пас аз ҷамъоварии ҳосил дар оҳангархона маросими қурбонӣ барпо мегардид. Дар баробари ин аз рӯи дигар эътиқодҳои динӣ оҳангарон фиристодаҳои шайтон ва иблис ҳисоб меёфтанд ва дар истифодаи оҳан мамониатҳои гуногун гузо-шта мешуданд, ки ин асари ҳамон тарсу ваҳми хурофии одамон аз фулузот буд .

Олоти оҳанӣ хеле оҳиста паҳн мегардид. Аввалҳо оҳанро асосан ба мақса-ди зебу зинат кор мефармуданд. Сонӣ тадриҷан аз он асбобу аслиҳа ме-сохтагӣ шуданд. Оҳанро ба моддаи ёзанда табдил дода, ба ин васила асбобу олот тайёр кардан аз сохтани олоти биринҷӣ дида чандин мартаба душвор-тар буд. Техникаи нав ба сустӣ азхуд карда мешуд. Аз ин рӯ, бартариҳои фулузи нав зуд ва якбора аён нагардид. Дар аввалин марҳилаҳои зуҳури асри оҳан дар Осиёи Миёна бештар асбобу аслиҳаи оҳану биринҷӣ, чунончи, ханҷарҳои теғааш оҳаниву дастааш (қисман ё тамоман) биринҷӣ сохта мешуданд.

Дар Осиёи Миёна ғалабаи асри оҳан хеле барвақт ба амал омад. Баъзе кишварҳои дигар, масалан, Хитой дар ин бобат аз Осиёи Миёна чандин сад-солаҳо ақиб монда буданд.

Масканҳо

Ёдгориҳои асри аввали оҳан дар Осиёи Миёна назар ба ёдгориҳои пеши-ни асрҳои санг ва биринҷӣ ниҳоятдараҷа кам кашф ва таҳқиқ гардидаанд.

Дар ҷануби Туркманистон баъзе масканҳои қадима, ки ҳаёти онҳо ҳанӯз аз аҳди энеолит шурӯъ гардида буд, мавҷудияти худро дар асри оҳан низ да-вом медоданд. Чунончи, дар худи Анав қабатҳои маскуни мансуб ба асри аввали оҳан кашф гардида, аз ин маснуоти оҳанӣ, аз ҷумла қадимтарин дар Осиёи Миёна досҳои оҳанӣ, пораи корд ва ғайра ёфт шудаанд .

Дар қисмати ҷанубу ғарби Туркманистон, дар он ҷое, ки фалоти Машҳади Мисриён воқеъ аст, масканҳои истеҳкомӣ ва беистеҳкоми мадани-яти дигаргунаи аз Анав фарқкунанда вуҷуд доштаанд. Баъзе аз онҳо ниҳоят калонанд, масалан, масоҳати маскани Иззатқулӣ ба 50 гектар мерасад. Хо-наҳо аз хиштҳои хеле калони дарозиаш 3/4-метра сохта шудаанд.

Водии Машҳади Мисриён ба воситаи каналҳо аз дарёи Атрек шодоб ме-гардид. Зироат дар зиндагонии аҳли масканҳо мавқеи муҳимеро ишғол ме-кард. Ба ин нафақат шабакаи обёрӣ, балки фаровонии осҳо ва дастгоҳҳои яр-ма низ шаҳодат медиҳанд. Ба кор фармуда шудани досҳои оҳанӣ набояд шубҳа кард, вале, дар баробари ин, истифодаи досҳои қадимаи сангӣ ҳам, ки теғаи аз санги чақмоқ сохташудаи онҳо пайдо гардидаанд, ҳанӯз давом дошт.

Дар масканҳо лӯндаҳои дажғоли оҳан ёфт шудаанд. Аз биринҷӣ яроқу аслиҳа, аз ҷумла шамшер ва пайкон сохта, бо чархи кулолӣ олоти сафолии хушсифат, вале бенақшу нигор тайёр мекардаанд .

Ниҳоят, гурӯҳи (аз ҷиҳати ҳудуд) савуми ёдгориҳо дар Туркманистони ҷануби шарқӣ, дар резишгоҳи Мурғоб, яъне дар Марғиёни охир кашф гар-дидааст. Калонтарин маскани ин ҷо Ёзтеппа мебошад, ки ба масофаи 34 км дуртар дар тарафи шимоли ғарбии Байрамалӣ воқеъ аст. Ин маскан иборат аз қалъаи тақрибан ростгӯшае буда, дар саҳни он манзилҳо ҷой гирифтаанд. Масоҳати умумии Ёзтеппа дар ин вақт (вай баъдҳо низ вуҷуд дошт) 16 гектар будааст. Дар қалъа рӯи суфаи хиштии баландиаш ҳаштметра бинои калоне сохта шуда буд, ки чанд манзили дарозрӯя ва мураббаъшакл, аз ҷумла то-лори бузурги ростгӯшае дошт. Маълум гардид, ки ин қалъа аслан кӯшки пуршукӯҳе буда, ҳамчун қароргоҳи ҳокими ин маҳал хизмат мекардааст.

Қисмати асосии бозёфтҳои маскани Ёзтеппаро сафололот ташкил мена-мояд. Олоти сафолии ин ҷо аз олоти сафолии Машҳади Мисриён бо он фарқ мекунад, ки вай бештар дастӣ сохта шудааст .

Асри аввали оҳан дар Тоҷикистони ҷанубӣ ва Ӯзбекистони ҷанубӣ осори худро дар сурати масканҳои Кучуктеппа (вилояти Сурхондарё), Макони Мор (райони Фархори ҷанубии Тоҷикистон) ва баъзе бозёфтҳои дигар боқӣ гузо-штааст.

Маскани Кучуктеппа дар дашти Музробод воқеъ гардидааст. Вай ҳанӯз дар айни авҷи тараққиёти аҳди биринҷӣ ба вуҷуд омада, мавҷудияти худро то худи миёнаи ҳазораи I пеш аз милод нигоҳ доштааст. Дар давраи мавриди баҳс дар ин маскан бинои байзашакли аз хиштҳои дарозрӯя сохташудае мавҷуд будааст (дар солҳои 1962–1964 ҳамагӣ 17 хона кофта тоза карда шуд). Ин бино бо девори мудофиавии мудаввар иҳота гардидааст. Аз ин ҷо қолабҳои рехтагарӣ, маснуоти биринҷӣ ва сангӣ, аз ҷумла досҳои сангӣ пайдо шуданд .

Бостоншиносони тоҷик дигар маскани онвақтаро дар поёноби Қизилсу, дар мавзеи Макони Мор кашф намуданд. Биноҳои ин маскан хароб гардида, фақат сафолоти фаровон ва инчунин баъзе маснуоти дигари марбут ба он замон боқӣ мондааст.

Маснуоти ҷудогона ва маҷмӯи асбобу олоти асри аввали оҳан аз дигар ноҳияҳои республика низ ёфт шудаанд. Аз ҷумла, охирин маҷмӯи бозёфтҳои Қайроққум, баъзе сағонаҳои дар Помири шарқӣ пайдошударо ҳам ба ҳамон давра нисбат додан мумкин аст .

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