Маорифпарварӣ ва Адабиёти тоҷик (нимаи дувуми асри ХIХ – ибтидои асри ХХ) — Донишхона

Маорифпарварӣ ва Адабиёти тоҷик (нимаи дувуми асри ХIХ – ибтидои асри ХХ)

Маорифпарварӣ дар нимаи дувуми асри ХIХ – ибтидои асри ХХ

Ба Россия ҳамроҳ шудани Осиёи Миёна ба равнақи маданияту санъату адабиёт объективона мусоидат кард. Олимони тараққипарвари Россия дар бобати тадқиқи иқтисодиёт, этнография, таърих, забон, адабиёт, сарватҳои табиӣ ва ғайраи Осиёи Миёна хизмати калон карданд.

Бисёр мутафаккирон ва шоирони Осиёи Миёна аз намояндагони зиёиёни пешқадами Россия сабақ мегирифтанд. Тадриҷан адабиёти кишвар ҳам пеш рафт. Дар ташаккули ҷаҳонбинии мутафаккири шаҳири он солҳо Аҳмад Маҳдуми Дониш, мулаққаб ба Аҳмади Калла (1827–1897) таъсири маданияти пешқадами Россия калон аст.

Аҳмади Дониш яке аз фозилтарин одамони Бухоро ба шумор мерафт. Ӯ дар бораи худ ба таври ҳаққонӣ навишта буд, ки дар симои як шахс духтур, шоир, мусиқачӣ, рассом, мунаҷҷим, олим ва хаттотро муҷассам намудааст. Аҳмади Дониш ба ивази озодфикрӣ ва ақидаҳои танқидиаш ба «кофирӣ» ном бароварда буд. Бо вуҷуди ҳамин ҳам, дониш ва маълумоти фавқулоддаи ӯ амирро маҷбур мекард, ки ба вай бо назари эътибор нигарад. Аҳмади Дониш ба сифати котиби сафорати амир се маротиба ба Петербург сафар карда буд. Шиносоӣ бо Россия ва маданияти рус дар тамоми ҳаёт ва фаъолияти ӯ роли ҳалкунанда бозид. Дар ҳамон шароити таърихие, ки Аҳмади Дониш умр ба сар мебурд, барои алоқа пайдо кардан бо одамони пешқадами Россия имконият надошт ва ба пояи ҳалли револютсионии масъалаи дигаргун кардани тарзи зиндагонӣ расида наметавонист. Ӯ дар ибрози мақсад ва орзуҳои сиёсии худ ба шиори хаёлпарастонаи подшоҳи маърифатнок рӯ меовард. Ба ақидаи вай, агар амир ба фоидаи маорифи халқ «бовар кунонда шавад», гӯё худи ҳамин барои ба тарзи нав сохтани ҳаёти воқеии Бухоро кофист. Лекин, дар айни замон, Аҳмади Дониш барои таъсис намудани идораҳои машваратӣ ва ба ин восита маҳдуд гардонидани яккаҳукмронӣ баромад мекард. Рӯҳи тамоми гуфтаҳои ӯро меҳру муҳаббат нисбат ба халқ ва ғамхорӣ барои саодатмандии он фаро гирифтааст. Аҳмади Дониш асли моҳияти ҳукумати мутлақаи Россияро дарк карда натавониста бошад ҳам, аммо Россияро бо Бухоро муқоиса карда, табиист, ки аз маданият, саноат ва шаҳрҳои рус ба ваҷд меомад.

Муҳимтарин асари Аҳмади Дониш рисолаи «Наводир-ул-вақоеъ» мебошад, ки аз маҷмӯи порчаҳои илмии фалсафӣ, публисистӣ ва бадеӣ фароҳам омадааст. Аҳмади Дониш дар ақидаҳои фалсафии худ дар мавқеи идеалист монда, монанди Абӯалӣ ибни Сино ва Умари Хайём ба таълимоти абадияти олам ва офариданашудани он мухлис будани худро низ изҳор доштааст, ки ин дар шароити онвақтаи пуртаассуби Бухоро ҳамаи пояҳоро ба ларза медаровард. Ӯ дар рисолаи оид ба таърихи ҳукмронии сулолаи Манғитияи Бухоро, ки ба тариқи пинҳонӣ паҳн гардида буд, Бухорои феодалиро ба зери танқиди сахт гирифта, ошкоро гуфтааст:

«Бас, агар ҳоли султонро тафтиш кунӣ фосиқе, золиме, саффоке; ва қозӣ марди мурташии ҳаромхоре, ғосибе; ва раис к… бедиёнате ва асас мухаммир ва муқаммир, саргурӯҳи роҳзанон ва саркардаи сориқон мебуд» .

Вай ҳамчунии пешбннӣ карда буд, ки наҷот аз зулму истибдод фақат бо ёрии халқи рус муяссар хоҳад шуд.

Тамоми одамони боистеъдоду поквиҷдони он солҳои Бухоро дар атрофи Аҳмади Дониш гирд меомаданд. Устод Айнӣ дар «Ёддоштҳо»-и худ хеле зиндаву таъсирбахш ба қалам медиҳад, ки чӣ тавр Аҳмади Дониш ба тадриҷ худро аз дарбор дур мекашид ва дар атрофи худ одамонеро ҷамъ мекард, ки кӯшиш доштанд мардумро аз банди ҷоҳилӣ ва бенавоӣ раҳо диҳанд.

Ба ин тариқа фикру ақидаҳои Аҳмади Дониш, бо вуҷуди он ҳама маҳдудиятҳои синфии худ, нисбат ба он замон ақидаҳои пешқадам ва прогрессивӣ буданд. Бузургтарин хизмати Аҳмади Дониш аз ин иборат аст, ки ӯ тавонист дар атрофи худ як гурӯҳ пайравон – маорифпарварони асри ХIХ тоҷикро муттаҳид кунад.

Абдулқодирхоҷаи Савдо (ваф. 1874), Қорӣ Раҳматуллоҳи Возеҳ (1828–1894), Исо Махдуми Бухороӣ (1826–1887), Шамсиддин Маҳдуми Шоҳин (1857–1893), Ҳайрати Бухороӣ (1876– 1902) барин шоирони маҳфили Аҳмади Дониш ҳарчанд шоирони забардасти охири асри ХIХ буданд, вале аз ҷиҳати ақидаву мафкура ба дараҷаи ин мутафаккири бузург расида натавонистанд.

Ба Россия ҳамроҳ шудани Осиёи Миёна дар вилояти Фарғона, ки аз ҷиҳати тараққиёти саноат нисбатан пеш буду бар хилофи аморати Бухоро худ ба ҳайъати генерал-губернатории Туркистон дохил мешуд, ба инкишофу равнақи ақидаҳои ҷамъиятию сиёсии ходимони ин кишвар хеле мусоидат намуд. Дар атрофи шаҳру деҳоти аҳолии маҳаллӣ пайдо шудани маҳаллаҳои русҳо, алоқаву робита бо русҳои тараққипарвар ва револютсионерони рус, ки ба хоки кишвари Туркистон бадарға шуда буданд, шиносоӣ бо ҳаракатҳои револютсионии Россия дар охири асри ХIХ, сохтмони роҳи оҳан ва зиёдшавии рафтуомад ба ноҳияҳои марказии Россия ва ғайра ба адабиёти маорифпарваронаи нимаи дувуми асри ХIХ ва ибтидои асри ХХ хеле таъсир карданд. Намояндагони пешқадами ин гуна адабиёт дар вилояти Фарғонаи кишвари Туркистон — Муқимӣ, Фурқат, Ҳамза Ҳакимзода, Дилшод ва Анбаротун буданд.

Дар эҷодиёти Муҳаммадаминхоҷаи Муқимӣ (1850–1903) ҳаҷв мақоми намоён дорад. Муқимӣ маҳз бо тавассути ҳаҷв беинсофию бедодию худсарию золимии амалдорони идораҳои подшоҳӣ, заводчиҳо, соҳибони фабрикаҳо, риёкорӣ, муфтхурӣ ва ҷоҳилию нодонии муллоҳоро фош мекунад.

Зокирҷон Фурқат (1858–1909) ба Россия, ба маданияти рус ҳусни таваҷҷӯҳи махсус дошт, дӯстию рафоқати халқи рус ва халқҳои Осиёи Миёнаро доимо тарғибу ташвиқ мекард.

Эҷодиёти шоири маорифпарвар Ҳамза Ҳакимзода (1889–1929) баъди револютсияи якуми Россия хеле равнақу ривоҷ ёфт.

Омилҳои асосии ташаккули ақидаҳои пешқадами маорифпарварони халқҳои тоҷик ва ӯзбек зиндагии вазнини халқҳои Осиёи Миёна ва шиносо шудани шоирону мутафаккирони Осиёи Миёна бо марказҳои илмию мадании Россия ҳам дар худи ҳамин ҷо, яъне Туркистон ва ҳам дар маркази ин мамлакати бекарон буд. Дар ташаккули ақидаҳои ҷамъиятию сиёсии Дилшод (1800–1905/06) ва Анбаротун (1874–1908/09) низ ин омилҳо яке аз омилҳои муҳимтарин буданд.

Дилшод ва Анбаротун мисли тамоми дигар равшанфикрон худсарию бедодии ҳукуматдорон, ҳокимияти ваҳшиёнаи феодалҳо, истисмори гӯшношуниди халқро маҳкум карда тавонистанд. Онҳо риёкорӣ, ҳарисӣ, фосиқӣ, ҷоҳилӣ ва бераҳмии бойҳоро фошу ошкор карда, муфтхӯрон, молимардумхуронро зери ҳаҷви сахт мегирифтанд.

Маорифпарварӣ ва Адабиёти тоҷик (нимаи дувуми асри ХIХ – ибтидои асри ХХ): 256 комментариев

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