Давлатҳои Юнону Бохтар ва Порт — Донишхона

Давлатҳои Юнону Бохтар ва Порт

Пайдоиш ва таърихи давраҳои аввали Порт ва Юнону Бохтар

Дар айни муборизаи байни ду бародарон (Селевки II ва Антиохи Гиеракс) барои соҳиб шудан ба тахт аз давлати Селевкиён портҳо ҷудо шу-данд, ки ба онҳо Андрагор ном юноние сардорӣ мекард. Мувофиқи ривояти воқеанигори антиқа, ки рӯйдодҳои онвақтаи Осиёи Миёнаро муфассал баён кардааст, воқеа чунин ҷараён дошт: «Сипас, Диодот низ ҷудо шуд (аз селев-киён -Б.Ғ.), ки ҳокими ҳазор шаҳрҳои Бохтар буд ва фармуд ӯро подшоҳ хо-нанд; ба ибрати ӯ аз мақдуниён тамоми мардуми Шарқ ҷудо шуданд. Дар он давра Арсак ном одаме буд безот, вале бошуҷоат, ки одатан роҳзанӣ ва дуздӣ мекард. Шунид, ки Селевк (Селевки II.–Б.Ғ.) дар Осиё шикаст хӯрдааст, дигар аз подшоҳ боке накарда, ба портҳо бо дастаи роҳзанон дарафтод, бар ҳокими онҳо Андрагор ғолиб омад, ӯро ба қатл расонд ва ҳокимиятро бар халқ (портҳо) ба даст гирифт» (Юстин, ХII, I, 4-7).

Ҳатто дар ҳамин як порчаи хурди таърихи ибтидои Юнону Бохтар ва Порт хеле норавшаниҳо, алалхусус, норавшаниҳои хронологӣ ҷой дорад. Юнону Бохтар кай ҷудо шудааст? Аввалин муҳаққиқи ин масъала академики Россия Ф.Байер (соли 1738) ва пас аз ӯ бисёр дигар олимон матнҳои лозимаро муфассал таҳлил намуда, мудом таъкид мекунанд, ки дар ин матнҳо, аз ҷум-ла дар матни Юстин мухолифатҳои хронологӣ ҳаст . Эҳтимоли комил аст, ки во-қеаҳои Диодот андаке пештар, тақрибан соли 256 пеш аз милод ба вуқӯъ омадаанд, ҳол он ки воқеаҳои Аршак қарибиҳои соли 256 пеш аз милод шудаанд.

Масъалаи дигари муҳимтар – масъалаи хусусияти он воқеаҳо аз ин ҳам мураккабтар аст. Дар ин бобат дар илми таърих ду ақида ҳаст. Ба ақидаи олимони Англия Г.Макдоналд ва В.Тарн дар Бохтар Селевкиён тангае сикка мезадаанд, ки дар он монограммаи (сарҳарфи) номи Диодот сабт шудааст ва ин далолат мекунад, ки иқтидор ва истиқлоли вориси мазкур ба тадриҷ ме-афзуд ва ниҳоят ҳақиқатан соҳибихтиёр гардид.  Вале ба ақидаи олими Ҳин-дустон А.Нарайн, ин гуна монограммаҳо одатан номи худи сиккахона ва ё худ номи маъмури сиккахонаро ифода мекунад. Агар ба таъкиди истиқлоли ин ё он ворис ҳоҷат бошад, дар танга номи пурраи ӯ сабт мешуд.  Ғайр аз ин дигар ақидаҳо ҳам ҳастанд. Аниқаш ҳамин, ки алҳол маънои монограммаҳои тангаҳои юнонию бохтариро муайян кардан имкон надорад.  Дар айни ҳол, ҷолиби диққат аст, ки дар як қатор тангаҳои давраи Селевкиён ба ҷои сурати подшоҳи Селевкиён сурати Диодот сабт шудааст. Рости гап, баъзе таърихчи-ён мегӯянд, ки ин на он Диодот аст, балки писари Диодот мебошад, вале ин даъво асоси ҷиддие надорад.

Хулласи гап, маълумоти тангаҳо ба ақидаи Макдоналду Тарн асос шуда наметавонад. Ғайр аз ин ақидаи мазкур чунин ривояти бевосита ва аниқи Юстинро ба инобат намегирад, ки Диодот аз давлати Селевкиён «ҷудо шуда-аст», яъне зидди давлати марказӣ шӯриш бардошта, давлати худашро таъсис додааст.

Ақидаи мо доир ба ин масъала, ки дар сарчашмаҳо ниҳоят ночиз акс ёф-тааст, дар «Таърихи халқи тоҷик» (с.1955) зикр шудааст. Гуфтан мумкин аст, ки дар Бохтар ворисони Селевкиён соҳиби қувваи тавонои ҳарбии юнонӣ бу-данд. Диодот ин қувваи ҳарбӣ ва аъёну ашрофи юнонишудаи маҳаллии Бо-хтару Суғдро, ки низ аз Селевкиён ҷудо шудан мехостанд, истифода бурда ва ба онҳо такя карда, сарвари ҳаракате шуд, ки боиси аз Селевкиён ҷудо шуда-ни Бохтар гардид. Шакке нест, ки дар ин ҳаракат оммаи халқ низ ширкат дошт, ки зидди зулми дутарафа ва барои истиқлол мубориза мебурд .

Аниқ гуфтан мумкин нест, ки вусъати ин давлат чӣ қадар буд. Страбон (II, 9,2) ҳикояте дорад, ки ривояти мазкурро қувват медиҳад. Ба қавли Стра-бон, волиёни юнонӣ (яъне дастнигору ҳамсафони Диодот) «пеш аз ҳама, Бо-хтарро ва тамоми мамлакати наздиктаринро ба исён таҳрик карданд». Аз ин аниқтар маълумоте дар даст надорем. Мумкин аст, ки ин Суғд бошад (баъзе муҳаққиқон чунин мепиндоранд), мумкин Ориёно ё Мароға бошад (ки ин ҳам аз эҳтимол дур нест).

Таърихи давраи аввали давлати Юнону Бохтар ва таърихи мулки Порт ба ҳам печидаанд. Юстин рӯирост мегӯяд, ки Арсак аз шоҳи Бохтар Диодот «ме-тарсид» (II, 1, 4,8). Страбон низ ривояте меоварад, ки Арсак бохтарие буд «ба-рои халос шудан аз қудрати рӯзафзуни Диодот ва ворисони вай дар Порт исён кард».

Ба ҷои Диодоти I, ки аз афти кор, дер ҳукм нарондааст, писараш Диодот ба сари ҳокимият омад. Сиккашиносон ҳеҷ муайян карда наметавонистанд, ки тангаҳои расми Диодот доштагӣ кадомаш ба Диодоти I тааллуқ дораду кадомаш ба Диодоти II.  Аз дигар тараф, чи гуна пайдо шудани мулки Порт ҳам равшан не. Дар маъхазҳои антиқа роҷеъ ба давраҳои аввали таърихи Порт се ақида ҳаст. Ба қавли Н.Дибвойс, ки муаллифи беҳтарин асари тадқиқотии таърихи сиёсии Порт мебошад, «ба худи юнониён(-и қадим.–Б.Ғ.) ҳақиқати таърихии ин ақидаҳо комилан  пӯшида буд».

Аз афти кор, дар миёнаҳои асри III пеш аз милод сатрапи Порт хостааст аз Селевкиён ҷудо шавад. Дар ҳамин давра аз Селевкиён Бохтар ҷудо шуда-аст. Маъхазҳо ривоят мекунанд, ки дар Порт ҳокимиятро Арсак ба даст ги-рифт. Ба қавли Страбон (ХI, 9,3; ХI, 9, 2), асли насаби вай аз кӯчманчиёни дах (ё худ парндахҳо) будааст; «баъзеҳо акси инро мегӯянд,– гапашро идома медиҳад Страбон– ва ӯро бохтарӣ мешуморанд, ки барои халос шудан аз қудрати рӯзафзуни Диодот ва ворисони вай дар Порт исён кард». Юстин ха-бар медиҳад, ки (ХI, I, 4, 6) Арсак шахси безот, вале бошуҷоат буд. Вай ба са-трапи Порт дарафтод, бар ӯ ғолиб омад «ва бар халқи Порт ҳукмрон шуд». Ақидаи севум (ки хеле муфассал аст) ба Арриан («Парфика», фиқраи 1) та-аллуқ дорад. Ду бародар Аршак ва Тиридот аз сатрапи Селевкиён ҳақорат шунидаанд. Пас аз ин панҷ шарики худро ба ёрдам ҷеғ зада, таҳқиркунандаи худро куштаанд ва халқро ба шӯриш таҳрик кардаанд.

Мо бо Дибвойс  ҳамфикр ҳастем, вале бе маъхази иловагӣ муқаррар кардан душвор аст, ки кадоме аз ин ақидаҳо дуруст мебошанд .

«Аввал Арсак оҷиз буд, зеро мудом бо онҳое меҷангид, ки мулкашонро кашида гирифта буд…» (Страбон, ХI, 9, 2). Дере нагузашта Арсак ҳалок шуд. Минбаъд подшоҳони Порт аксаран бо номи аслии худ номбар нашуда, балки «арсакҳо» («аршакҳо») ва худи сулола «Арсакиён» («Аршакиён») номида шудааст, ки дар сарчашмаҳои шарқӣ бештар бо номи Ашкониён машҳур аст.

Пас аз вафоти асосгузори сулола — Аршак бародари вай Тиридот ба сари ҳокимият омад . «Дере нагузашта Арсак (яъне Тиридоти I.– Б.Ғ.) мулки Гир-конро низ тасхир кард. Ба ҳамин тарз, Арсак бар ду давлат сарвар шуда, лашкари бузурге ҷамъ овард, зеро ҳам аз Селевк ва ҳам аз шоҳи Бохтар Дио-дот бим дошт» (Юстин, ҶLI, 4, 8).

Дар айни ҳол, ҳамин хеле муҳим аст, ки ҳар ду давлати навбунёд бо ҳам мухолифат меварзиданд. Аз афти кор, сараввал ҳар яки он иддао дошт, ки дар Осиёи Миёна ҳукмрон шавад. Ҳокимони Порт дар аввал аз Диодоти I ба дараҷае меҳаросиданд, ки аз Селевкиён ин қадар ҳарос надоштанд. Вале баъди марги Диодоти I кор ранги дигар гирифт. Аз афти кор, ниятҳои таҷовузкоронаи Селевкиён, ки ба ҳар ду давлати соҳибихтиёри Осиёи Миёна таҳдид мекарданд, дар бобати дигар гаштани муносибати Порт ва Юнону Бохтар сабаби асосӣ шуданд. Баъди марги Диодоти I писараш Диодоти II бо Порт муоҳидаи сулҳ баст (Юстин, ХLI, 4, 8–9). Гап дар ин ки подшоҳи Селев-киён — Селевки II ба шарқ лашкар кашид, то ноҳияҳои Осиёи Миёнаро боз ба мулки худ ҳамроҳ кунад. Вале ин дафъа «дандонаш нагузашт». Портҳо, ки ақибгоҳи худро мустаҳкам карда буданд, ҳамлаи селевкиёнро рад намуданд. Рости гап, аввал Тиридоти I маҷбур шуд ба мулки апасиакҳои кӯчманчӣ, ки дар шимоли Порт мезистанд, ақиб нишинад, вале баъд баргашту Селевки II-ро торумор кард.

Дар боло мо гуфтем, ки иттифоқи Порт ва Юнону Бохтар дар бобати сиё-сати хориҷӣ чӣ мақсад дошт. Эҳтимол, Диодоти II муоҳидаи мазкурро барои ҳамин баста бошад, ки мехост дар соҳаи сиёсати дохилӣ ҳам мавқеи худро пойдор намояд, зеро вазъият дар дохили мулки вай он қадар ҳам таърифӣ набуд.

Душмани Диодоти II Евтидем ном юнонии Осиёи Сағир, ки ба туфайли табаддулот ба сари ҳокимият омад, беш аз пеш мақоми намоёнро соҳиб мешуд. Тахмин мекунанд, ки вай бародари Диодот аст, вале ин аз эҳтимол дур мебошад. Чунин тахмин ба ҳақиқат наздиктар аст, ки вай пеш аз та-баддулот дар давлати Юнону Бохтар мансаби баланде дошт, вале чӣ гуна мансаб, инаш маълум не. Баъзеҳо мегӯянд, ки вай сатрапи Суғд буд, дигарон сатрапи Ориёно ё Мароға мегӯянд, вале ҳамаи ин иддао ягон асоси ҷиддие надорад.

Полибий (Х, 34, 2–3) бо забони худи Евтидем чунин мегӯяд: «На ман ав-вал зидди подшоҳ хестам, баръакс ҳукмрони Бохтар барои ҳамин шудам, ки авлоди чанд хоинро қир кардам». Аз ин мебарояд, ки Евтидем авлоди Диодо-ти I, яъне худи Диодоти II ва бачагони ӯро ва, эҳтимол, авлоди дигар ҳамса-фони Диодоти 1-ро нобуд кардааст.

В.Тарн мутмаин аст, ки табаддулоти Евтидемро «халқ дастгирӣ мекард, зеро иттифоқ (Диодоти II.– Б.Ғ.) бо Порт ба юнониёни Бохтар маъқул набуд» ва Евтидем ба манфиати Селевкиён амал мекард.  В.Тарн дар асоси чунин тахмин сухан меронад, ки зани Евтидем духтари маликаи Селевкиён буд ва ба ин сабаб худро хешу ақрабои Селевкиён мешумурд. Вале ҳамаи ин тах-минҳои беасос аст.

Дар бораи ҷиҳатҳои ҳақиқии воқеаҳои минбаъдаи аҳди Евтидем маълу-мот ниҳоят кам аст. Тахмин кардан мумкин, ки вай Диодоти II-ро кушту бо худи ҳамин як кирдораш муносибатро бо Порт тезутунд кард. Аз эҳтимол дур нест, ки ин муносибати тезутунд боиси задухӯрдҳои мусаллаҳона ҳам гардид. Чи тавре ки аз баёни минбаъда равшан мешавад, дар аҳди Евтидем давлати Юнону Бохтар, дар ғарб Ориёно, Мароға ва эҳтимол, Аспион ва Ту-риваро аллакай дар бар мегирифт. Ба ҳамин тариқ, Евтидем дар Осиёи Миё-на мулки зиёдеро соҳиб шуд. Маркази ин мулк ҳамоно Бохтар буд ва ба ҳайъати он Суғд ва мумкин аст, баъзе ноҳияҳои ҳамсоя дохил мешуданд.

Муборизаи зидди истилокории Селевкиён

Сипас, ахбори маъхазҳо моро ба даҳсолаҳои охири асри III пеш аз милод меоварад. Дар ин мобайн Порт давлати муқтадир гардид. Барои мустаҳкам кардани ҳокимияти худ Ашкониён баробари қувваи яроқ, инчунин аслиҳаи идеологиро ҳам кор мефармуданд. Дар тангаҳои онҳо дар паҳлӯи номи под-шоҳ унвони «tӯos», яъне «Худо» пайдо шуд, ки ин далели баробари Худо боло бардоштани шоҳ мебошад ва ин яке аз хусусиятҳои идеологияи сиёсии Шарқи қадим аст. Аршакиҳо барои исботи худодод будани ҳокимияти худ ҳангоми тоҷгузорӣ маросимоти оташпарастиро истифода мебурданд, ки аз он қадимтарин урфу одатҳои эронӣ бармеояд.

Яке аз мавзӯъҳои маъмули расми рӯи тангаҳои портӣ расми мардест, ки дар ҷои нишастааш дасташро рост карда, камонро дошта истодааст. Ақидае ҳаст, ки ин гуна тасвир кардани камонро бояд як навъ инвеститура шуморид. Диққати муҳаққиқон инчунин ба ҳамин ҷиҳати масъала низ ҷалб карда шуд, ки мавзӯи расми рӯи тангаҳои Ашкониён ва расми рӯи зарфҳои нуқра, ки аз қӯрғони давраи скифҳо дар маҷрои миёнаи Дон дар наздикии Воронеж ёфта шуд, ба ҳамдигар хеле шабоҳат доранд . Агар тавзеҳи ба қарибӣ пешниҳод-шудаи расми рӯи он зарфҳоро қабулкарда эътироф намоем, ки он расм тасвири ривояти скифии пайдоиши скифҳо ва шоҳони онҳо мебошаду дар айни ҳол, инчунин манзараи инвеститураро ҳам инъикос менамояд, пас гуфтан мумкин, ки шабоҳати он ду расм исботи возеҳи расми рӯи тангаҳои портӣ мебошад. Зиёда аз ин, агар чунин маълумоти муаррихони антиқаро ба назар гирем, ки Ашкониён худ аз шимол ва кӯчманчӣ буданд, пас шояд чунин иддао ҳам карда тавонем, ки ҳам дар зарфи скифӣ ва ҳам дар тангаи ашконӣ ҳамон як чиз тасвир шудааст.

Тиридот ҳудуди Портро вусъат дода, ба он чанд ноҳияҳои Эронро ҳамроҳ кард, чанд қалъа сохт, шумораи лашкари худро афзуд. Вале тақрибан соли 211 баъди 37 соли ҳукмронӣ вафот кард. Ба тахти салтанат писараш Артабо-ни I нишаст.

Дар ин солҳо мавқеи Селевкиён боз мустаҳкам шуд. Подшоҳи Селевкиён Антиохи III кӯшид, ки ҳукми худро ба тамоми мулкҳои пешинаи шарқии Се-левкиён ҷорӣ намояд, алалхусус, ки Тиридот барин лашкаркаши ботаҷрибаи кордон кайҳо фавтида буд. Мувофиқи маълумоти, зоҳиран, муболиғаомези Юстин (ХLI, 5, 7) Антиохи III бо лашкари сершумор–100 ҳазор пиёда ва 20 ҳазор савора ба юриш баромад . Портҳо мардона муқобилат мекарданд, вале душман зӯр буд ва онҳо маҷбуран ақиб нишастанд. Онҳо як қисми хоки худро аз даст доданд ва маҷбур шуданд, ки дар бораи иттифоқ бо Cелевкиён муоҳида банданд .

Роҳ ба хоки давлати Юнону Бохтар кушода шуд. Рафти воқеаҳои мин-баъдаро Полибий ба қалам додааст. Дастаи пешгарди лашкари Евтидем, ки 10 ҳазор савора дошт, ба лаби дарёи Арей (Ҳарируд) оварда шуд. Вазифаи онҳо ҳамин буд, ки ба убури лашкари Селевкиён монеъ шаванд. Убургоҳро рӯзона дидбонӣ мекарданду шабона андаке аз дарё дуртар хайма зада қарор мегирифтанд ва, аз афти кор, дар канори дарё танҳо посбононро мегузо-штанд. Антиохи III инро фаҳмида дар торикии шаб номаълум лашкари худ-ро ба канори дарё оварду қарибиҳои субҳ қисми зиёди лашкари худро аз да-рё гузаронд. Бохтариён хабари ҷосусони худро шунида ба тарафи дарё тохтанд. Антиохи III шахсан худаш дар сари лашкар истод. Лашкари савораи бохтариён ба се гурӯҳ тақсим шуда, ба сари Селевкиён фурӯ рехтанд ва аз ҳар ду тараф одами зиёде кушта шуд. Сарчашмаҳо қайд кардаанд, ки ҳуҷуми саворагони бохтарӣ хеле кироӣ буд. Полибий менависад, ки вақте гурӯҳи дувум ва севуми лашкари бохтариён ба ҳуҷум гузашт, Селевкиён «аз ин тазъиқи мудҳиши душман ба танг омаданд». Вале Антиохи III лашкари эҳти-ётии худро ба кор андохту қисми асосии лашкари бохтариён дур монд. Дар натиҷа лашкари Селевкиён ғолиб омад ва танҳо қисми ночизи саворагони бохтарӣ, ки душман онҳоро дунболагирӣ мекард, то ба қувваи асосии лашкар рафта расид, ки ба он худи Евтидем сардорӣ мекард. Евтидем маҷбур шуд, ки ба тарафи қалъаи Зариаспа – Бактарам ақиб нишинаду дар паси деворҳои мустаҳками он паноҳ барад (Полибий, Х,49, 1–15).

Аз он матни то замони мо расидаи Полибий як пораи калонаш гум шудааст. Пас аз он анҷоми муҳосираи Бохтар тасвир шудааст. Байни душ-манон гуфтушуниди дурударозе оғоз ёфт. Евтидем, аз ҷумла, созиш кардан-ро барои ҳамин ҳам хеле зарур мешумурд, ки «дар сарҳад… лашкари бешу-мори кӯчманчиён истодааст, ки барои ҳардуи мо хавф доранд ва агар он ҷоҳилон аз сарҳад гузаранд, мамлакат, бешак, истило мешавад». Аз навиштаҳои Полибий маълум мегардад, ки подшоҳи Селевкиён ҳам бесама-рии муҳосираро дида, ба умеди чунон ҳалли масъала буд, ки мақбули тара-файн бошад. Гуфтушунид хеле давом кард. Барои анҷоми он Евтидем ба қароргоҳи Антиохи III писараш Деметрийро фиристод. «Подшоҳ (Антиохи III –Б.Ғ.) ӯро хуш қабул кард ва дид, ки вай ҳам ба сурат ва ҳам ба сират шоистаи тахту тоҷ аст, бинобар ин аввалан ваъда дод, ки яке аз духтарони худро ба вай никоҳ хоҳад кард ва сониян, розӣ шуд, ки ба унвони подшоҳии падараш кор-дор нахоҳад шуд. Дигар шартҳо дар созишномаи хаттӣ дарҷ ёфта, иттифоқи қасамӣ баста шуд. Антиох барои роҳ тӯшаи фаровон бардошта ва филҳои ҷангии Евтидемро бо худ гирифта, аз қароргоҳаш хест» (Полибий, ХI, 34, I– 11). Дар бораи дигар шартҳои созишнома маълумоти аниқе дар даст надо-рем. Фақат ҳаминаш маълум, ки Евтидем ба Антиохи III пешкаши бисёр, аз ҷумла, филҳои ҷангии худро дода, ба ҳар ҳол соҳибихтиёрии расмии Юнону Бохтарро нигоҳ доштааст. Ҳамаи ин бо шарофати ҷасорату мардонагии муҳофизони Бохтар ба даст омад, зеро муҳосираи шадид ҳам умеди онҳоро аз ғалаба канда натавонист.

Як ҷои ривояти Полибий ҷолиби диққат аст. Қисми зарбазани лашкари Евтидем саворагони Бохтар буданд – худи ҳамон 10 ҳазор аскарони савора буданд, ки аввалин зарбаи лашкари Селевкиёнро рад карданд ва қариб буд, ки худ ба ҳуҷум гузашта, ғолиб оянд. Ба ақидаи В.Тарн, сабаби бисёр будани аскарони савораи Бохтар ҳамин, ки ба туфайли кадом як тадбирҳои сиёсии Евтидем аъёну ашрофи Бохтар ба корҳои идораи давлат ҷалб шуда будаанд . Вагарна, ҳатто тасаввур имкон надорад, ки ба саворагони Бохтар чунин супо-риши муҳимро додан мумкин буд, зиёда аз ин, агар иқрор накунем, ки аъёну ашрофи Бохтар ба дафъи ҳамлаи Селевкиён ҳақиқатан майл доштанд, мо шарҳ дода наметавонем, ки чаро онҳо дар ҷанг ин гуна амал карданд .

Антиохи III аз муҳосираи Бохтар даст кашида рӯ ба ҷануб рафт ва аз Ҳиндукуш гузашта, ба Ҳиндустон даромаду «дар он ҷо бо подшоҳи ҳиндуҳо Софагасен тарҳи дӯстӣ баст» (Полибий (ХI, 34, I–II) номи яке аз шоҳони суло-лаи Моравиён–Субҳагонасонро чунин ба қалам додааст). Антиохи III роҳи Ҳиндустонро пеш гирифта, кӯшиш дошт як қисми хоки давлати Моравиёнро, ки дар он вақт хеле суст шуда буд, тасхир намояд, вале ин кӯшиши вай барор нагирифт. Дар айни ҳол, вай бо ин ҳаракати худ ба ҳокимони Юнону Бохтар гӯё ишора кард, ки минбаъд куҷоҳоро тасхир кардани онҳо мумкин аст.

Равнақи давлати Юнону Бохтар

Масоҳати давлати Юнону Бохтарро писари Евтидем Деметрий аз ҳисоби хоки Ҳиндустон вусъат дод. Юстин (ХII, 6,4) Деметрийро «шоҳи ҳиндувон» меномад. Страбон (ХI, II, I) мегӯяд, ки Ҳиндустонро Деметрий ва боз як под-шоҳи дигар Менандр тасхир карданд. Дар сафарномаи Исидори Харкасӣ Деметрий ном шаҳре зикр шудааст, ки дар Арахозия воқеъ будааст.

Тангаҳое, ки дар онҳо номи Деметрий сабт шудаанд, хеле гуногунанд. Дар ин тангаҳо подшоҳ гоҳо тоҷ бар сар ва гоҳ хӯд дар сар тасвир шудааст, ки ба сурати каллаи фил аст. Симои подшоҳ низ дар тангаҳо як хел нест. Хати баъзе тангаҳо юнонӣ, дигар тангаҳо юнонию ҳиндӣ (бо хати кҳарошти). Дар рӯи тангаҳое, ки дар атрофи сурати подшоҳ хатҳои юнонию ҳиндӣ доранд, чунин навишта шудааст: «Аз они подшоҳи мағлубнопазир Деметрий» . Баъзе муҳаққиқон гуногун будани тангаҳоро дар назар дошта тахмин меку-нанд, ки ду подшоҳ вуҷуд дошту номи ҳар ду Деметрий буд, вале баъзе муҳаққиқон инро қатъиян рад мекунанд. Алҳол ин масъаларо аниқ ҳал кар-дан мумкин не. Ба ҳар ҳол Деметрий (ё худ яке аз он ду подшоҳи ҳамном) аз ҳисоби ноҳияҳои ҷануб ҳудуди Юнону Бохтарро хеле васеъ кард. Ба ду забон сабт шудани навиштаҷот ва хӯди ба каллаи фил монандро фақат чунин шарҳ додан мумкин, ки ба ҳайъати давлати Юнону Бохтар кадом як қисми Қандаҳори Қадим (Шимолу ғарби Покистони ҳозира) ҳамроҳ шудааст.

Олими Ҳиндустон А.Н.Лоҳурӣ дар асоси маъхазҳои ҳиндӣ ба хулосае меояд, ки Деметрий ба Ҳиндустон дар аҳди Бриҳандратҳа (Ӣқihandқatha) ном подшоҳи нотавоне дохил шудааст, ки худ аз сулолаи Моравиён буд ва ин тақрибан соли 185 пеш аз милод ба вуқӯъ омадааст. А.Н.Лоҳурӣ ба Р.Уэтхэйд пайравӣ намуда, тахмин мекунад, ки ин истилои пойдор не, балки як навъ юриши бардавоми ҳарбӣ, як навъ тохтутозе буд, ки дар рафти он лашкари юнониёну бохтарҳо ба дарунтари хоки давлати Моравиён дохил шуданд. Ин воқеа ба Шарқ таъсири зӯр расонд ва ба ин сабаб Деметрий соҳиби унвони «шоҳи ҳиндувон» гардид, ки мо инро аз гуфтаи Юстин медонем: «Натиҷаи бевоситаи ин тохтутоз казоӣ набуд, он танҳо ба таҷовузҳои минбаъдаи юно-ниён (юнону бохтарҳо.–Б.Ғ.) ва истило шудани шимолу ғарби Ҳиндустон роҳ кушод». Ба ақидаи А.Н.Лоҳурӣ, Деметрий то ба Паталипутра расида, лаш-кари Бриҳандратҳаро торумор карду дере нагузашта ба Бохтар баргашт, зе-ро ӯро мубориза бо Евкратиди Кабир  дар пеш буд. Ин таҳлили Лоҳурӣ, ки аниқу дақиқ буда, қариб тамоми ҷузъиёташ ба фактҳо асос ёфтааст, ба наза-ри мо, хеле эътимодбахш мебошад.

Дар он даврае, ки Деметрий ба тасхири Ҳиндустон машғул буд, дар ар-саи таърихи Юнону Бохтар дигар як шахси намоён – Евкратид пайдо шуд. Юстин чунин ривоят мекунад: «қариб дар як замон дар Порт — Митридот ва дар Бохтар — Евкратид подшоҳ шуданд. Ҳар ду мардони майдон буданд. Вале толеи портҳо тофт ва онҳо ба шарофати сарварии ин марди бузург ба авҷи қудрат расиданд. Бохтариён бошанд, гоҳ ба ину гоҳо ба он ба ҷангу ҷидол сар-гарм гардида, на фақат мулки худ, балки истиқлоли худро аз даст доданд; онҳо бо суғдҳо, арахотҳо, дрангаҳо, ориҳо ва ҳиндуҳо беист ҷанг карда, дар азоб монданд ва дар охир гӯё аз ҳол рафта, зердасти портҳое шуданд, ки нис-бат ба онҳо заифтар буданд. Ба ҳар ҳол, Евкратид дар ҳамаи ин ҷангҳо ҷасо-рату матонати беҳамтое нишон медод: масалан, вақте вай дар муҳосираи шоҳи ҳиндуҳо Деметрий монда хеле суст шуда буд, бо сесад нафар лашкари худ паси ҳам шабохун зада, бар шаст ҳазор нафар душман ғолиб омад. Баъди муҳосираи панҷмоҳа вай Ҳиндустонро мутеъ кард» (ХII, 6, 1–5).

Страбон (ХV, 1, 3) ба «Таърихи Порт»-и Аполлодор истинод намуда, ме-нависад, ки подшоҳони Юнону Бохтар «нисбат ба мақдуниён, ҳатто қисми бештари Ҳиндустонро тасхир карданд…» Дигар ровиён ривоят кардаанд, ки ба вай «9 қабила ва 5000 шаҳр тобеъ буд». Страбон (ХI, 9, 2) ривоят кардааст, ки портҳо хеле пештар аз Евкратид ва тарафдорони вай, инчунин як қисми Бохтарро истило намуданд ва скифҳоро дур андохтанд. Страбон (ХI, 11, 2) шаҳрҳои Бохтарро зикр карда, шаҳри Евкратидеяро ном мебарад, ки «ба ша-рафи собиқ ҳокими худ чунин ном доштааст» ва сипас илова мекунад, ки «портҳо аз дасти Евкратид сатрапиҳои Аспиён ва Туриваро кашида ги-рифтанд».

Чунинанд маълумоти маъхазҳои таърихӣ. Ғайр аз ин бисёр тангаҳои Евкратид ҳастанд. Шумораи зиёди онҳо аз Осиёи Миёна ёфт шуданд. Маса-лан, дар вилояти Қашқадарё, назди Китоб хазинае ёфт шуд, ки қариб 100 до-на тангаҳои Юнону Бохтарӣ дорад. Аксари ин тангаҳо тангаҳои давраи Евкратид мебошанд. Ин гуна тангаҳо, инчунин аз хоки Тоҷикистон, масалан, аз райони Панҷи вилояти Кӯлоб ва ғ. ёфт шудаанд.

Бояд гуфт, ки дар рӯи он тангаҳо, ки расми Евкратид сабт гардидааст, «Подшоҳи аъзам Евкратидро» навишта шуда, дар қафои он расми ду кас ҳаст: як зани тоҷдор ва як марди бетоҷ ва инчунин хате ҳаст: «Гелиокла ва Ла-одика». Ҳарфи «а», ки ба охири ин номҳо илҳоқ шуда, мансубияти онҳоро ифода менамояд, боиси шарҳу тавзеҳоти мухталифе гардид, ки мувофиқи онҳо хати тангаро ин тавр хондан даркор: «Подшоҳи аъзам Евкратидро (фар-зандонаш) Гелиокл ва Лаодик», ё худ дар қафои танга писари Евкратид ва занаш тасвир шудаанд, ки малика будааст (барои ҳамин тоҷ доштааст ва ғ. ва ҳ.). Алҳол аксари олимон эътироф мекунанд, ки дар танга волидайни Евкра-тид, аз он ҷумла, модараш – малика тасвир шудаанд ва гӯё бо ҳамин «қонунӣ» будани амалиёти худ ва соҳиби тахт шудани худро таъкид карданӣ будааст.  Ба фикри мо, маҳз чунин ақида қобили қабул мебошад ва аз гуфтаҳои сустбунёди В. Тарн, ки дар адабиёти советӣ таҳлил карда шудааст, даст кашидан даркор.

Дар асоси маълумоти маъхазҳои хаттӣ ва тангаҳои мазкур тахмин кар-дан мумкин аст, ки дар аҳди Евкратиди Кабир  воқсаҳо ба тартиби зайл ҷа-раён доштанд.

Дар он замоне ки Деметрий дар Ҳиндустон мегашт, дар Бохтар Евкратид ном яке аз намояндагони ашрофи юнонӣ исён бардошт, ки падараш Лаодик аз авлоди подшоҳон будааст. Ин воқеа айнан дар ҳамон вақте ба вуқӯъ омад, ки ба тахти Порт Митридоти I соҳиб шуд, яъне тахминан соли 171 пеш аз ми-лод Евкратид ҳокимиятро ба ҳамин сабаб ҳам ба осонӣ ба даст овард, ки қисми асосии лашкари Юнону Бохтарро Деметрий ба Ҳиндустон бурда буд.

Евкратид ба тахт соҳиб шуда, унвони «Сотер», яъне «Наҷотбахш»-ро ги-рифт ва бо ҳамин гӯё таъкид мекард, ки вай Бохтарро аз Деметрий наҷот до-дааст. Деметрий ин хабарро шунида, барои фурӯ нишондани исён лашкари бисёре мефиристад, ки шумораи он аз шумораи лашкари Евкратид зиёд буд. Лашкари камшумори Евкратид ба муҳосира гирифта шуд ва гӯё ки илоҷи халосӣ надошт – охир шумораи муҳосирон фақат 60 ҳазор буд. Вале Евкра-тид аз парокандагии лашкари душман фоида бурда (дар ин бора дар маъхазҳо ишорате нест), беист ба душман ҳамла карда, бо дастаи 300-нафараи худ мудом шабохун зада, шуҷоату ҷасорати бемисл нишон дод ва лашкари сершумори Деметрийро торумор кард. Сипас, ба тахт баромада, унвони «Подшоҳи аъзам Евкратид»-ро гирифт, сиккае зад, ки дар он расми падару модараш сабт шуда буд. Ба номи худи Евкратид дар Бохтар тангаи бисёре бароварда шуд, ки, аз афти кор, пас аз сари вай ҳам хеле вақт дар му-омила буд. Минбаъд ҳам баъди суқути давлати Юнону Бохтар тақлидан ба ин тангаҳо хеле дигар тангаҳо бароварда шуд.

Евкратид дар Бохтар ҳокимияти худро тақвият дода, ба тасхири мулкҳои ҳиндустонии Деметрий шурӯъ намуд ва зимнан ҳудуди онҳоро ҳатто васеъ кард. Ақидае ҳаст, ки вай соҳиби 1000 шаҳр будааст.

Вале гуфтан мумкин нест, ки дар аҳди Евкратид ҳама кор нуран ало нур буд. Аз ду музофоти ғарбии давлати Юнону Бохтар маҳрум шуд – онҳо ба дасти подшоҳи муқтадири Порт — Митридоти I гузаштанд, зимнан Митридо-ти I ким-чи хел ноҳияҳои сарҳадиро низ ишғол карда будааст .

Евкратид тасхири Ҳиндустони шимолиро анҷом дода, ба тарафи Бохтар раҳсипор шуд. Юстин (ХLI, 6, 5) менависад, ки «ҳангоми бозгашт аз юриш Евкратидро писараш кушт, ки ӯро андаке пештар ба худ шарики ҳукмронӣ карда буд. Писар падаркушии худро, гӯё ки на падараш, балки душманашро кушта бошад, ҳатто пинҳон ҳам намекард. Вай савораи аробаи ҷангӣ хуни падарашро зер карда гузашту фармуд, ки ҷасадро ба хок насупурда, партофта раванд». Ин анҷоми пурфоҷиаи кори Евкратид қарибиҳои соли 155 пеш аз милод ба вуқӯъ омадааст .

Муосир ва рақиби Евкратид подшоҳи Порт — Митридоти I (солҳои 171–138/7 пеш аз милод) дар бобати вусъати ҳудуди мулки худ хеле муваффақи-ятҳо ба даст овард. Вай зидди ҳокимони маҳаллӣ ва Селевкиён боисрор мубо-риза бурда, Эрони ғарбиро ишғол намуд, ки Мидия ва Байнаннаҳрайнро ба ҳудуди Порт дохил кард. Порт тадриҷан яке аз давлатҳои муқтадири ҷаҳон гардид.

Вазъият дар Юнону Бохтар дигар буд. Аз нимаҳои асри II пеш аз милод давраи инқирози иқтидори сиёсии он расид.

Ин давлати бузург, ки ноҳияҳои беканори Осиёи Миёна, Афғонистон ва Ҳиндустонро дар бар мегирифт, пароканда мешуд. Баъзе волиён, ки аз авло-ди Диодот, Евтидем ва Евкратид буданд ва баъзе ашрофи забардаст, ки ба хонадони шоҳон тааллуқ надоштанд, ҳокимиятро ба даст мегирифтанду аз номи худ сикка мезаданд. Зоҳиран, дар нимаи дувуми асри II пеш аз милод дар Бохтару Суғд волӣ Антимах ном шахсе будааст, ки унвони «Теос» («Ху-до») доштааст. Аз ҷумлаи шоҳони ҳиндустонӣ мавқеи Менандр намоёнтар аст, ки вай, аз афти кор, фавран баъди вафоти Евкратид  мулкҳои дар Ҳин-дустон бударо ба даст даровардааст. Мувофиқи ривояти буддоиён, вай под-шоҳи хирадманде буда, ба равнақу ривоҷи давлат мусоидат мекардааст. Тах-мин меравад, ки ривояти маъхазҳои буддоӣ роҷеъ ба дини буддоро қабул кардани вай аз ҳақиқат дур нест.

Аллакай дар охирҳои асри II пеш аз милод дар аҳди Евтидем иттиҳоди қабилаҳои кӯчманчӣ ба ноҳияҳои шимолии Юнону Бохтар бевосита таҳдид мекарданд. Дар нимаи дувуми асри II пеш аз милод бошад, олами кӯчман-чиёни шимолии Осиёи Миёна гӯё як баҳри хурӯшоне буд, ки мавҷҳои он паси ҳам ба соҳилҳои Юнону Бохтар дарафтода, онро пахш мекарданд. Аз омада-ни ин тӯфон ҳатто онҳое, ки Селевкиёнро зери по карда буданд, яъне под-шоҳони Порт, ворисони Митридоти I муқтадир ба ларза меомаданд.

Давлатҳои Юнону Бохтар ва Порт: 296 комментариев

  • в
    Permalink

    I simply want to say I am just all new to blogs and honestly enjoyed this page. Very likely I’m going to bookmark your site . You certainly come with really good articles and reviews. Cheers for sharing with us your website page.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hey very nice site!! Guy .. Excellent .. Amazing .. I will bookmark your site and
    take the feeds additionally? I’m happy to seek out so many helpful info here within the
    publish, we need work out more strategies on this regard, thank you for
    sharing. . . . . .

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I think the admin of this web page is truly working hard for
    his site, as here every stuff is quality based material.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Simply wish to say your article is as amazing. The clarity on your publish is simply cool and that i can assume you are a professional in this subject. Fine along with your permission allow me to grasp your feed to stay up to date with drawing close post. Thanks a million and please keep up the rewarding work.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hi there, I found your blog via Google while looking for a related topic, your web site came up, it looks great. I’ve bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Attractive section of content. I just stumbled upon your web site and in accession capital to assert that
    I acquire in fact enjoyed account your blog posts.
    Anyway I’ll be subscribing to your augment and even I
    achievement you access consistently rapidly.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    It is perfect time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I’ve read this post and if I could I want to suggest you some interesting things or suggestions. Maybe you can write next articles referring to this article. I want to read even more things about it!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hey there just wanted to give you a quick heads up.
    The text in your content seem to be running off the screen in Chrome.

    I’m not sure if this is a formatting issue or
    something to do with browser compatibility but I thought I’d post
    to let you know. The design look great though! Hope you get the problem
    resolved soon. Kudos

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Youre so cool! I dont suppose Ive read anything like this before. So good to search out someone with some authentic thoughts on this subject. realy thanks for starting this up. this web site is something that is needed on the web, somebody with somewhat originality. helpful job for bringing something new to the web!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    This design is steller! You definitely know how to keep a reader entertained.
    Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved
    to start my own blog (well, almost…HaHa!) Wonderful job.
    I really enjoyed what you had to say, and more than that, how
    you presented it. Too cool!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Thank you for sharing excellent informations. Your web-site is very cool. I’m impressed by the details that you have on this blog. It reveals how nicely you perceive this subject. Bookmarked this website page, will come back for more articles. You, my pal, ROCK! I found simply the information I already searched everywhere and simply couldn’t come across. What an ideal web-site.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I enjoy you because of your whole effort on this blog. My aunt delights in managing internet research and it is obvious why. A lot of people learn all relating to the dynamic mode you give both useful and interesting tips and tricks via this blog and as well welcome participation from website visitors about this point plus our girl is really being taught a great deal. Take pleasure in the rest of the year. You are performing a great job.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I’m still learning from you, while I’m making my way to the top as well. I certainly liked reading everything that is posted on your site.Keep the information coming. I liked it!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger.
    I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking
    more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your website in my social networks!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hi! This is kind of off topic but I need some help from an established blog. Is it hard to set up your own blog? I’m not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty fast. I’m thinking about creating my own but I’m not sure where to begin. Do you have any tips or suggestions? Cheers

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hello there! I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering which blog platform are you using for this website? I’m getting tired of WordPress because I’ve had problems with hackers and I’m looking at alternatives for another platform. I would be fantastic if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Needed to draft you one tiny note in order to say thank you over again relating to the unique secrets you’ve shared in this case. It has been so seriously generous of people like you to allow easily what exactly a number of us would’ve distributed as an e book to make some dough for themselves, principally now that you could possibly have done it if you ever desired. These good ideas as well worked like a fantastic way to understand that many people have the identical fervor much like my own to learn good deal more regarding this problem. Certainly there are many more pleasant situations ahead for those who scan your blog post.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Good post. I learn something totally new and challenging on websites I stumbleupon on a daily
    basis. It’s always helpful to read articles
    from other authors and use something from their web sites.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Right now it appears like Expression Engine is the best blogging platform out there right now. (from what I’ve read) Is that what you are using on your blog?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hello, Neat post. There is an issue along with your web site in web explorer, might check this… IE nonetheless is the marketplace chief and a large component to folks will leave out your great writing due to this problem.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Howdy, i read your blog from time to time and
    i own a similar one and i was just wondering if you get a lot of
    spam comments? If so how do you protect against it,
    any plugin or anything you can suggest? I get so much lately it’s driving me insane so any assistance is very much appreciated.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Thanks for the good writeup. It in truth used to be a enjoyment account it. Glance complex to more introduced agreeable from you! However, how can we be in contact?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hi, Neat post. There is a problem with your site in internet explorer, would check this… IE still is the market leader and a huge portion of people will miss your magnificent writing due to this problem.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I just could not depart your website prior to suggesting that I extremely enjoyed the standard information a person provide for your visitors? Is going to be back often to check up on new posts

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Usually I do not learn post on blogs, however I wish to say that this write-up very forced me to check out and do so! Your writing taste has been surprised me. Thanks, quite nice article.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Cool blog! Is your theme custom made or did you download it from somewhere? A theme like yours with a few simple adjustements would really make my blog stand out. Please let me know where you got your design. Thanks a lot

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wished to say that I have truly enjoyed surfing around your weblog posts. After all I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I am hoping you write again very soon!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I¡¦ll right away grasp your rss as I can not find your e-mail subscription hyperlink or newsletter service. Do you’ve any? Please allow me understand so that I may just subscribe. Thanks.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I don’t even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was good. I do not know who you are but definitely you are going to a famous blogger if you are not already 😉 Cheers!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Wow! This can be one particular of the most useful blogs We have ever arrive across on this subject. Actually Magnificent. I’m also an expert in this topic so I can understand your effort.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    A formidable share, I just given this onto a colleague who was doing a little evaluation on this. And he the truth is purchased me breakfast as a result of I discovered it for him.. smile. So let me reword that: Thnx for the deal with! However yeah Thnkx for spending the time to debate this, I feel strongly about it and love reading more on this topic. If doable, as you develop into experience, would you thoughts updating your weblog with more details? It’s highly useful for me. Huge thumb up for this weblog post!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Generally I don’t read article on blogs, but I would like to say that this write-up very forced me to try and do so! Your writing style has been amazed me. Thanks, very nice article.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I am very happy to read this. This is the type of manual that needs to be given and not the random misinformation that is at the other blogs. Appreciate your sharing this greatest doc.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I haven’t checked in here for a while because I thought it was getting boring, but the last few posts are great quality so I guess I’ll add you back to my daily bloglist. You deserve it my friend 🙂

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    The heart of your writing while appearing reasonable in the beginning, did not really work properly with me personally after some time. Someplace throughout the sentences you were able to make me a believer but just for a very short while. I nevertheless have got a problem with your leaps in logic and you would do nicely to fill in those breaks. If you can accomplish that, I will surely be amazed.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I together with my pals appeared to be viewing the great thoughts on your web page and so quickly developed an awful feeling I had not thanked the web site owner for them. All of the guys were definitely consequently thrilled to read all of them and already have truly been loving them. Thank you for getting considerably accommodating as well as for opting for this sort of important guides most people are really needing to be informed on. My personal honest apologies for not expressing gratitude to sooner.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    After research a few of the blog posts on your web site now, and I really like your method of blogging. I bookmarked it to my bookmark web site list and will probably be checking again soon. Pls check out my web site as properly and let me know what you think.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Does your blog have a contact page? I’m having a tough time locating it but, I’d like to shoot you an e-mail. I’ve got some creative ideas for your blog you might be interested in hearing. Either way, great site and I look forward to seeing it develop over time.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    It’s a shame you don’t have a donate button! I’d definitely donate to this excellent blog!
    I suppose for now i’ll settle for bookmarking and adding
    your RSS feed to my Google account. I look forward to fresh
    updates and will share this site with my Facebook group.
    Talk soon!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Thank you, I have just been looking for info about this topic for a long time and yours is the best I have came upon till now. However, what concerning the conclusion? Are you positive about the supply?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Fantastic post however I was wondering if you could write a litte more on this subject? I’d be very thankful if you could elaborate a little bit further. Bless you!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Simply want to say your article is as astonishing. The clearness in your post is just spectacular and i could assume you are an expert on this subject. Well with your permission allow me to grab your feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please continue the enjoyable work.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    The subsequent time I read a weblog, I hope that it doesnt disappoint me as much as this one. I mean, I do know it was my option to read, however I really thought youd have one thing attention-grabbing to say. All I hear is a bunch of whining about something that you can repair in the event you werent too busy on the lookout for attention.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Attractive portion of content. I simply stumbled upon your blog
    and in accession capital to assert that I acquire actually enjoyed account your weblog posts.
    Anyway I’ll be subscribing for your feeds or even I fulfillment you get right of entry to persistently rapidly.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Thanks for some other informative blog. The place else could I am getting that type of information written in such a perfect method? I have a project that I’m just now operating on, and I have been on the glance out for such info.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is a really well written article. I will make sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful info. Thanks for the post. I will certainly comeback.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    F*ckin’ tremendous things here. I’m very glad to peer your article. Thanks a lot and i am looking ahead to contact you. Will you kindly drop me a mail?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Repulsive questions contented him few extensive supported. Of remarkably thoroughly he appearance in. Supposing tolerably applauded or of be. Suffering unfeeling so objection agreeable allowance me of. Ask within entire season sex common far who family. As be valley warmth assure on. Park girl they rich hour new well way you. Face ye be me been room we sons fond.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    This is very interesting, You’re an excessively skilled blogger. I’ve joined your rss feed and look ahead to in quest of extra of your great post. Additionally, I’ve shared your web site in my social networks!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hmm it appears like your website ate my first comment (it was super long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what I had written and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog. I too am an aspiring blog blogger but I’m still new to the whole thing. Do you have any points for inexperienced blog writers? I’d certainly appreciate it.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hey there, You have done a great job. I’ll definitely digg it and personally recommend to my friends. I’m confident they’ll be benefited from this site.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hi there! This post could not be written any better! Reading through this post reminds me of my old room mate! He always kept talking about this. I will forward this post to him. Pretty sure he will have a good read. Many thanks for sharing!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I like what you guys are up also. Such intelligent work and reporting! Keep up the superb works guys I¡¦ve incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it will improve the value of my website 🙂

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    You actually make it appear so easy along with your presentation however I in finding this matter to be really something which I believe I’d by no means understand. It kind of feels too complicated and extremely huge for me. I am having a look forward in your next post, I will attempt to get the hold of it!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Attractive component of content. I just stumbled upon your blog and in accession capital to assert that I acquire in fact enjoyed account your blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing for your feeds and even I success you get admission to constantly rapidly.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Thanks , I’ve recently been looking for information about this subject for ages and yours is the greatest I have discovered so far. But, what about the bottom line? Are you sure about the source?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Excellent blog here! Additionally your website rather a lot up fast! What host are you the use of? Can I get your affiliate link for your host? I desire my website loaded up as fast as yours lol

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Excellent read, I just passed this onto a colleague who was doing some research on that. And he just bought me lunch because I found it for him smile Therefore let me rephrase that: Thanks for lunch! «No one can wear a mask for very long.» by Seneca.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Heya i am for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It truly useful & it helped me out a lot. I hope to give something back and help others like you helped me.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hey There. I found your blog the usage of msn. This is a really
    well written article. I’ll make sure to bookmark it and come back to learn more of your helpful info.
    Thanks for the post. I’ll certainly comeback.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I am not sure the place you are getting your info, but good topic. I needs to spend a while finding out much more or working out more. Thanks for fantastic information I used to be looking for this info for my mission.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I simply wanted to thank you so much once more. I do not know what I might have carried out without these pointers contributed by you about my field. It previously was a real intimidating issue in my view, nevertheless taking a look at the well-written form you handled the issue took me to weep for happiness. I’m just grateful for this information and in addition pray you find out what a powerful job that you’re carrying out educating many others by way of your webblog. I’m certain you haven’t met all of us.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    One thing is the fact one of the most common incentives for making use of your credit card is a cash-back or maybe rebate supply. Generally, you’ll get 1-5 back with various acquisitions. Depending on the cards, you may get 1 again on most acquisitions, and 5 again on acquisitions made using convenience stores, gasoline stations, grocery stores as well as ‘member merchants’.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Thank you for the auspicious writeup. It in fact was a amusement account it. Look advanced to more added agreeable from you! However, how can we communicate?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I’ve been absent for a while, but now I remember why I used to love this web site. Thank you, I’ll try and check back more frequently. How frequently you update your web site?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I’ve been exploring for a little for any high-quality articles or blog posts on this kind of area . Exploring in Yahoo I at last stumbled upon this web site. Reading this info So i’m happy to convey that I’ve a very good uncanny feeling I discovered just what I needed. I most certainly will make sure to don’t forget this website and give it a look regularly.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I’ll right away grab your rss as I can not in finding your email subscription hyperlink or e-newsletter service. Do you’ve any? Kindly allow me know so that I may subscribe. Thanks.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Helpful info. Lucky me I discovered your website by chance, and I’m shocked why this coincidence did not happened earlier! I bookmarked it.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Thanks for revealing your ideas here. The other factor is that any time a problem occurs with a computer system motherboard, people today should not consider the risk of repairing it themselves for if it is not done right it can lead to permanent damage to all the laptop. Most commonly it is safe to approach your dealer of any laptop for that repair of its motherboard. They have technicians who’ve an know-how in dealing with pc motherboard troubles and can make right prognosis and undertake repairs.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    F*ckin’ tremendous things here. I’m very glad to peer your article. Thank you a lot and i am looking ahead to contact you. Will you kindly drop me a e-mail?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Actually when someone doesn’t know then its up to other visitors that they will assist, so here it happens.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    There are some fascinating points in time in this article however I don’t know if I see all of them middle to heart. There may be some validity however I will take maintain opinion till I look into it further. Good article , thanks and we would like extra! Added to FeedBurner as nicely

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I have been reading out many of your stories and i can claim pretty good stuff. I will make sure to bookmark your website.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I would like to show thanks to this writer for rescuing me from such a problem. As a result of exploring throughout the the net and obtaining proposals which were not productive, I believed my entire life was well over. Living without the presence of approaches to the problems you have fixed by means of your entire report is a serious case, as well as those that would have badly damaged my entire career if I hadn’t discovered your web page. The training and kindness in handling all the stuff was helpful. I am not sure what I would have done if I hadn’t come upon such a point like this. I’m able to at this point look forward to my future. Thanks for your time so much for this professional and effective guide. I won’t think twice to recommend the website to any individual who wants and needs tips about this matter.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    certainly like your web-site but you have to check the spelling on quite a few of your posts. Many of them are rife with spelling issues and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth nevertheless I will certainly come back again.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hey, I think your blog might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your website in Chrome, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, awesome blog!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Thanks , I have just been looking for information about this subject for ages and yours is the best I’ve discovered till now. But, what about the conclusion? Are you sure about the source?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Great work! This is the type of info that should be shared around the net. Shame on Google for not positioning this post higher! Come on over and visit my website . Thanks =)

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Wow that was odd. I just wrote an very long comment but after I clicked
    submit my comment didn’t appear. Grrrr… well I’m not writing all that
    over again. Anyway, just wanted to say fantastic blog!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I will right away clutch your rss feed as I can’t find your e-mail subscription hyperlink or e-newsletter service. Do you have any? Please let me know in order that I may subscribe. Thanks.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hey! Someone in my Facebook group shared this site with us so I came to give it a look. I’m definitely enjoying the information. I’m bookmarking and will be tweeting this to my followers! Terrific blog and wonderful design.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I have been absent for a while, but now I remember why I used to love this blog. Thanks , I will try and check back more frequently. How frequently you update your web site?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Thanks for this article. I will also like to mention that it can possibly be hard when you find yourself in school and just starting out to establish a long credit ranking. There are many students who are simply trying to make it through and have a lengthy or beneficial credit history can often be a difficult factor to have.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I was just looking for this information for some time. After 6 hours of continuous Googleing, finally I got it in your site. I wonder what is the lack of Google strategy that do not rank this kind of informative sites in top of the list. Normally the top websites are full of garbage.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Do you mind if I quote a couple of your articles
    as long as I provide credit and sources back to your blog?
    My blog is in the exact same area of interest as yours and my users
    would truly benefit from a lot of the information you provide here.
    Please let me know if this ok with you. Cheers!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Marvelous, what a web site it is! This website gives valuable facts
    to us, keep it up.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Simply wish to say your article is as surprising. The clearness for your post is just excellent and i can think you’re a professional on this subject. Well with your permission let me to grasp your RSS feed to stay up to date with coming near near post. Thank you one million and please carry on the enjoyable work.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Enjoyed looking at this, very good stuff, appreciate it. «Curiosity killed the cat, but for a while I was a suspect.» by Steven Wright.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Great remarkable things here. I am very glad to look your article. Thanks so much and i am looking forward to touch you. Will you kindly drop me a e-mail?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hurrah! Finally I got a blog from where I know how to in fact obtain helpful information concerning my study and knowledge.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I am really impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Either way keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s rare to see a nice blog like this one nowadays..

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I’ve recently started a website, the information you provide on this site has helped me tremendously. Thanks for all of your time & work. «Everyone is responsible and no one is to blame.» by Will Schutz.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I would like to thank you for the efforts you have put in writing this blog. I am hoping the same high-grade site post from you in the upcoming as well. In fact your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own web site now. Actually the blogging is spreading its wings rapidly. Your write up is a great example of it.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I’m very happy to read this. This is the type of manual that needs to be given and not the random misinformation that’s at the other blogs. Appreciate your sharing this greatest doc.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Nice blog here! Additionally your site a lot up fast! What host are you the use of? Can I get your associate link for your host? I desire my web site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    You actually make it appear so easy along with your presentation however I find this matter to be actually something that I think I’d never understand. It sort of feels too complex and very huge for me. I’m looking forward to your subsequent post, I will try to get the cling of it!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your website
    and in accession capital to assert that I get actually enjoyed account your blog posts.
    Anyway I’ll be subscribing to your feeds and even I achievement you access consistently fast.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Thanks for another informative site. Where else could I get that type of information written in such a perfect way? I have a project that I’m just now working on, and I’ve been on the look out for such information.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    That is a really good tip especially to those new to the blogosphere.
    Brief but very precise info… Appreciate your sharing this one.
    A must read post!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hmm is anyone else having problems with the pictures on this blog loading? I’m trying to determine if its a problem on my end or if it’s the blog. Any feed-back would be greatly appreciated.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Nice blog here! Also your web site loads up very fast! What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my web site loaded up as fast as yours lol

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    We stumbled over here coming from a different web address and thought I should check things
    out. I like what I see so now i am following you.
    Look forward to looking into your web page again.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I think this is one of the most vital info for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But want to remark on few general things, The site style is great, the articles is really great : D. Good job, cheers

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    fantastic points altogether, you just gained a new reader. What could you suggest about your post that you just made some days ago? Any certain?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Excellent items from you, man. I have have in mind your stuff previous to and you’re simply extremely excellent. I really like what you have got right here, certainly like what you’re stating and the way during which you are saying it. You’re making it enjoyable and you still care for to keep it smart. I can not wait to learn much more from you. That is really a great site.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I will right away seize your rss feed as I can not to find your email subscription link or newsletter service. Do you have any? Kindly permit me understand in order that I may subscribe. Thanks.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hello there, I discovered your blog by way of Google
    at the same time as looking for a comparable topic, your web site got here up, it appears to be like great.
    I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.
    Hello there, simply turned into aware of your blog through
    Google, and located that it’s really informative.
    I’m going to watch out for brussels. I’ll be grateful in case you continue this in future.
    Numerous other people will be benefited out of your writing.
    Cheers!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Its such as you read my thoughts! You appear to know
    a lot about this, like you wrote the ebook in it or something.
    I believe that you simply can do with some percent to power
    the message home a bit, but instead of that, this is fantastic
    blog. An excellent read. I’ll definitely be back.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Magnificent goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you are just extremely wonderful. I actually like what you’ve acquired here, really like what you’re stating and the way in which you say it. You make it entertaining and you still take care of to keep it sensible. I can not wait to read far more from you. This is actually a wonderful site.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Amazing! This blog looks exactly like my old one! It’s on a entirely different subject but it has pretty much the same page layout and design. Superb choice of colors!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I’m really enjoying the design and layout of your website. It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more pleasant for me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a designer to create your theme? Great work!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    magnificent post, very informative. I wonder why the other experts of this sector do not notice this. You must continue your writing. I’m sure, you’ve a huge readers’ base already!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Attractive section of content. I just stumbled upon your web site and in accession capital to assert that I acquire actually enjoyed account your blog posts. Any way I will be subscribing to your feeds and even I achievement you access consistently quickly.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Undeniably believe that which you stated. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the web the easiest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people think about worries that they just do not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people can take a signal. Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Its like you read my mind! You appear to know a lot about this,
    like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you can do with some pics to drive the message home a bit, but other than that, this is magnificent blog.

    A fantastic read. I’ll certainly be back.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Great post. I was checking constantly this blog
    and I am impressed! Very useful info particularly the last part 🙂 I care for such info a lot.
    I was seeking this particular information for a very long time.
    Thank you and best of luck.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    A lot of the things you mention happens to be supprisingly accurate and it makes me ponder the reason why I had not looked at this in this light previously. Your article really did switch the light on for me as far as this specific issue goes. Nevertheless there is actually one particular position I am not necessarily too cozy with and while I attempt to reconcile that with the central theme of your position, allow me observe what all the rest of your readers have to point out.Well done.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though you relied on the video to make your point. You clearly know what youre talking about, why waste your intelligence on just posting videos to your weblog when you could be giving us something informative to read?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I conceive this site contains some real good information for everyone :D. «Years wrinkle the skin, but to give up enthusiasm wrinkles the soul.» by Samuel Ullman.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I was excited to uncover this site. I wanted to thank you for your time
    due to this wonderful read!! I definitely enjoyed every part of it
    and I have you book-marked to check out new things in your blog.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hi there are using WordPress for your blog platform? I’m new to the blog world but I’m trying to get started and set up my own. Do you require any html coding expertise to make your own blog? Any help would be really appreciated!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I read this piece of writing completely on the topic of the
    difference of latest and preceding technologies, it’s remarkable article.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    There are some fascinating deadlines in this article but I don’t know if I see all of them center to heart. There’s some validity but I will take maintain opinion until I look into it further. Good article , thanks and we wish more! Added to FeedBurner as effectively

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Thank you, I’ve just been looking for information about this subject for a long time and yours is the best I’ve found out so far. But, what concerning the conclusion? Are you sure about the supply?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Usually I do not learn post on blogs, but I wish to say that this write-up very pressured me to check out and do it! Your writing style has been amazed me. Thank you, very nice article.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    wonderful post, very informative. I wonder why the other experts of this sector do not notice this. You should continue your writing. I’m confident, you’ve a great readers’ base already!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Sweet blog! I found it while browsing on Yahoo News. Do you have any suggestions on how to get listed in Yahoo News? I’ve been trying for a while but I never seem to get there! Many thanks

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Fantastic website. Plenty of useful information here. I am sending it to several pals ans also sharing in delicious. And certainly, thanks in your sweat!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    What i don’t realize is if truth be told how you’re no longer really a lot more well-liked than you might be now. You’re so intelligent. You realize therefore significantly in the case of this subject, made me personally consider it from a lot of various angles. Its like men and women don’t seem to be interested until it is something to accomplish with Girl gaga! Your personal stuffs nice. At all times take care of it up!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hi there, I found your site by the use of Google whilst looking for a related matter, your web site got here up, it seems to be great.
    I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.
    Hi there, simply changed into alert to your weblog via Google, and located that it
    is truly informative. I am going to watch out for brussels.
    I’ll appreciate for those who continue this in future.

    Numerous people can be benefited out of your writing. Cheers!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    hi!,I like your writing so so much! share we communicate more about your post on AOL?
    I require an expert on this area to resolve my problem.
    May be that’s you! Taking a look ahead to see you.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Yet another issue is really that video gaming has become one of the all-time most important forms of recreation for people of nearly every age. Kids engage in video games, and adults do, too. The particular XBox 360 is one of the favorite games systems for individuals that love to have hundreds of video games available to them, and who like to experiment with live with others all over the world. Many thanks for sharing your ideas.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hi, I do think this is a great site. I stumbledupon it 😉 I am
    going to revisit once again since I book marked it. Money and
    freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich
    and continue to help others.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Thanks so much for providing individuals with an extremely pleasant opportunity to check tips from this site. It is often very superb and also stuffed with a great time for me and my office peers to search your website really three times per week to read through the fresh issues you will have. And indeed, I am also at all times satisfied for the terrific points served by you. Certain 3 tips in this posting are basically the most efficient I’ve had.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    It’s appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I’ve read this post and if I could I want to suggest you few interesting things or suggestions. Maybe you could write next articles referring to this article. I want to read more things about it!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Have you ever thought about creating an e-book or guest authoring on other websites?

    I have a blog based upon on the same information you discuss and
    would love to have you share some stories/information. I know my readers would appreciate your work.
    If you are even remotely interested, feel free
    to send me an e mail.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I and my guys happened to be reviewing the great procedures located on the website then then I had an awful feeling I never thanked the site owner for those techniques. The women ended up absolutely stimulated to read them and already have undoubtedly been taking advantage of them. We appreciate you being well thoughtful as well as for making a choice on this kind of wonderful resources most people are really eager to be informed on. My personal sincere regret for not expressing appreciation to earlier.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Somebody essentially help to make seriously articles I would state. This is the first time I frequented your website page and thus far? I surprised with the research you made to create this particular publish extraordinary. Fantastic job!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Thanks for giving your ideas. I would also like to mention that video games have been at any time evolving. Today’s technology and revolutions have aided create authentic and fun games. These entertainment games were not really sensible when the real concept was being experimented with. Just like other kinds of technological innovation, video games as well have had to develop by way of many generations. This is testimony to the fast development of video games.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    hello!,I like your writing so much! share we communicate more about your post on AOL? I require an expert on this area to solve my problem. May be that’s you! Looking forward to see you.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I’ve been absent for some time, but now I remember why I used to love this site. Thanks, I’ll try and check back more frequently. How frequently you update your site?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    A motivating discussion is worth comment. I think that you need to publish more
    on this issue, it may not be a taboo matter but typically folks
    don’t talk about these topics. To the next! Kind regards!!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    You really make it appear really easy together with your presentation but I to find this topic to be really something that I feel I would by no means understand. It seems too complex and extremely broad for me. I’m taking a look ahead to your subsequent publish, I will attempt to get the cling of it!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    It’s really a great and helpful piece of information. I am glad that you shared this useful information with us. Please keep us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    A person necessarily lend a hand to make significantly posts I might state. That is the first time I frequented your web page and up to now? I amazed with the analysis you made to make this particular publish incredible. Excellent job!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hi there! This blog post couldn’t be written much better!
    Reading through this article reminds me of my previous roommate!
    He continually kept talking about this. I most certainly will forward this article to him.
    Pretty sure he’ll have a good read. Thanks for sharing!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I’m extremely inspired together with your writing skills
    and also with the layout on your weblog. Is that
    this a paid theme or did you customize it your self?
    Either way stay up the nice high quality writing, it is uncommon to look a
    nice weblog like this one nowadays..

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hi there this is somewhat of off topic but I was wondering if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML. I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding knowledge so I wanted to get advice from someone with experience. Any help would be greatly appreciated!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    You can certainly see your enthusiasm in the paintings you write. The arena hopes for more passionate writers like you who are not afraid to say how they believe. Always follow your heart. «In order to preserve your self-respect, it is sometimes necessary to lie and cheat.» by Robert Byrne.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Thanks for your beneficial post. Through the years, I have been able to understand that the particular symptoms of mesothelioma are caused by the build up associated fluid relating to the lining of the lung and the torso cavity. The sickness may start within the chest location and propagate to other areas of the body. Other symptoms of pleural mesothelioma cancer include weight-loss, severe breathing trouble, nausea, difficulty taking in food, and swelling of the neck and face areas. It must be noted that some people existing with the disease don’t experience every serious signs at all.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I am genuinely delighted to glance at this blog posts which carries lots of helpful information, thanks for providing these statistics.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    you’re actually a good webmaster. The web site loading pace is incredible. It kind of feels that you are doing any unique trick. In addition, The contents are masterpiece. you’ve done a magnificent process in this matter!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Good day! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could get a captcha plugin for my comment form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having difficulty finding one? Thanks a lot!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hey! This is my first comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out and say I truly enjoy reading through your posts. Can you recommend any other blogs/websites/forums that cover the same topics? Thanks a ton!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I’ve truly enjoyed browsing your blog posts. In any case I’ll be subscribing to your rss feed and I hope you write again very soon!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    great publish, very informative. I ponder why the other experts of this sector don’t realize this. You should proceed your writing. I’m confident, you have a great readers’ base already!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Undeniably believe that which you said. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the net
    the easiest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I definitely get annoyed
    while people think about worries that they just do
    not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people can take a signal.

    Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    You can certainly see your skills in the work you write. The world hopes for more passionate writers like you who are not afraid to say how they believe. Always follow your heart.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hi there, You’ve done an excellent job. I will definitely digg it and personally suggest to my friends. I’m sure they will be benefited from this site.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favorite reason seemed to be on the web the simplest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I definitely get irked while people consider worries that they just do not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top as well as defined out the whole thing without having side effect , people could take a signal. Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your web site and in accession capital to assert that I acquire in fact enjoyed account your blog posts. Anyway I will be subscribing to your augment and even I achievement you access consistently fast.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    This is very attention-grabbing, You’re an overly professional blogger. I have joined your feed and sit up for in search of extra of your great post. Also, I have shared your web site in my social networks!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Enjoyed looking through this, very good stuff, thanks . «If it was an overnight success, it was one long, hard, sleepless night.» by Dicky Barrett.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    you’re actually a just right webmaster. The site loading pace is incredible. It kind of feels that you’re doing any unique trick. Moreover, The contents are masterwork. you have performed a excellent job in this matter!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I do trust all of the concepts you have offered on your post. They are very convincing and can certainly work. Nonetheless, the posts are too short for newbies. May just you please lengthen them a little from next time? Thanks for the post.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Do you mind if I quote a few of your posts as long as I provide credit and sources back to your site? My website is in the very same niche as yours and my users would genuinely benefit from a lot of the information you provide here. Please let me know if this alright with you. Thanks!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your rss feed and look forward to seeking more of your excellent post. Also, I have shared your web site in my social networks!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I loved as much as you will receive carried out right here.
    The sketch is attractive, your authored material stylish.
    nonetheless, you command get bought an nervousness over that you wish be delivering the following.
    unwell unquestionably come further formerly again as exactly
    the same nearly a lot often inside case you shield this
    hike.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I believe that avoiding highly processed foods would be the first step in order to lose weight. They can taste great, but processed foods contain very little vitamins and minerals, making you eat more in order to have enough vigor to get with the day. If you are constantly taking in these foods, changing to whole grain products and other complex carbohydrates will help you have more vitality while consuming less. Good blog post.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hello there! I know this is kind of off topic but I was wondering which blog platform are you using for this site? I’m getting fed up of WordPress because I’ve had problems with hackers and I’m looking at options for another platform. I would be fantastic if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Normally I do not learn article on blogs, however I would like to say that this write-up very pressured me to check out and do so! Your writing taste has been surprised me. Thanks, very great article.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I’m impressed, I must say. Really hardly ever do I encounter a weblog that’s both educative and entertaining, and let me let you know, you will have hit the nail on the head. Your idea is outstanding; the issue is something that not sufficient persons are talking intelligently about. I’m very joyful that I stumbled throughout this in my search for one thing regarding this.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Generally I don’t read post on blogs, however I would like to say that this write-up very compelled me to take a look at and do it! Your writing taste has been amazed me. Thank you, very great post.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    You actually make it appear really easy together with your presentation but I find this matter to be really one thing that I believe I’d by no means understand. It sort of feels too complicated and very huge for me. I am having a look forward to your next publish, I will attempt to get the hold of it!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    One thing I want to discuss is that weight loss program fast can be carried out by the proper diet and exercise. Ones size not merely affects the look, but also the actual quality of life. Self-esteem, melancholy, health risks, in addition to physical capabilities are disturbed in extra weight. It is possible to just make everything right but still gain. If this happens, a problem may be the root cause. While an excessive amount food instead of enough exercise are usually guilty, common medical ailments and popular prescriptions may greatly enhance size. Thanks a bunch for your post here.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Also I believe that mesothelioma cancer is a scarce form of cancer malignancy that is normally found in these previously exposed to asbestos. Cancerous cellular material form inside mesothelium, which is a protective lining which covers many of the body’s areas. These cells commonly form inside lining of your lungs, mid-section, or the sac which actually encircles the heart. Thanks for expressing your ideas.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hi there! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering which blog platform are you using for this site? I’m getting fed up of WordPress because I’ve had issues with hackers and I’m looking at alternatives for another platform. I would be great if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Very interesting topic , regards for putting up. «I do not pretend to know where many ignorant men are sure-that is all that agnosticism means.» by Clarence Darrow.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Thanks so much for giving everyone a very spectacular possiblity to check tips from this web site. It is often very awesome and also jam-packed with a lot of fun for me personally and my office acquaintances to visit your site not less than thrice a week to read the fresh items you will have. And indeed, I’m also at all times fulfilled concerning the extraordinary tips you serve. Certain 2 ideas on this page are indeed the most efficient we’ve had.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I am now not sure the place you are getting your info, but great topic. I must spend some time studying much more or working out more. Thanks for great information I was looking for this info for my mission.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I like the valuable info you provide in your articles. I will bookmark your blog and check again here frequently. I am quite certain I’ll learn plenty of new stuff right here! Good luck for the next!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Very efficiently written post. It will be valuable to anybody who employess it, as well as yours truly :). Keep doing what you are doing — looking forward to more posts.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Sweet blog! I found it while surfing around on Yahoo News. Do you have any tips on how to get listed in Yahoo News? I’ve been trying for a while but I never seem to get there! Cheers

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    That is really interesting, You are an overly skilled blogger. I’ve joined your rss feed and look forward to in the hunt for more of your great post. Also, I’ve shared your web site in my social networks!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hi! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a team of volunteers and starting a new initiative in a community in the same niche. Your blog provided us beneficial information to work on. You have done a extraordinary job!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Wonderful web site. Plenty of helpful info here. I am sending it to some friends ans also sharing in delicious. And certainly, thanks on your sweat!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    wonderful points altogether, you just gained a brand new reader. What would you suggest in regards to your post that you made some days ago? Any positive?

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    hi!,I really like your writing very much! percentage we keep in touch extra approximately your article on AOL? I require a specialist in this house to solve my problem. May be that is you! Taking a look forward to see you.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I am typically to running a blog and i actually respect your content. The article has really peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your site and maintain checking for new information.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    You could certainly see your enthusiasm within the work you write. The arena hopes for more passionate writers such as you who are not afraid to mention how they believe. All the time follow your heart.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hello there, just become aware of your weblog through Google, and found that it is truly informative. I am gonna watch out for brussels. I will be grateful if you happen to continue this in future. Lots of other people might be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I simply could not leave your website prior to suggesting that I actually loved the usual info a person provide for your visitors? Is going to be again often in order to check up on new posts

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Awesome site you have here but I was wanting to know if you knew of any user discussion forums that cover the same topics talked about here? I’d really like to be a part of online community where I can get advice from other experienced people that share the same interest. If you have any recommendations, please let me know. Bless you!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hey there would you mind letting me know which hosting company you’re working with? I’ve loaded your blog in 3 completely different web browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot faster then most. Can you suggest a good hosting provider at a honest price? Thank you, I appreciate it!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Please let me know if you’re looking for a article author for your blog. You have some really great posts and I believe I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d absolutely love to write some articles for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please send me an email if interested. Thanks!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Good post. I be taught one thing tougher on different blogs everyday. It is going to always be stimulating to read content material from other writers and follow just a little one thing from their store. I’d prefer to use some with the content material on my blog whether you don’t mind. Natually I’ll offer you a link on your net blog. Thanks for sharing.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I simply wished to appreciate you once more. I am not sure the things I would have made to happen in the absence of the entire tricks shown by you concerning my concern. It truly was a difficult difficulty in my position, but coming across your well-written form you dealt with the issue made me to leap for joy. I’m just grateful for this information and even sincerely hope you recognize what a powerful job that you are carrying out training some other people via your website. Probably you haven’t got to know any of us.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    certainly like your web-site however you have to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. Many of them are rife with spelling issues and I find it very troublesome to inform the reality then again I’ll certainly come back again.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    Hiya, I’m really glad I’ve found this info. Nowadays bloggers publish only about gossips and net and this is actually irritating. A good web site with exciting content, this is what I need. Thank you for keeping this site, I’ll be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? Cant find it.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    obviously like your web site but you have to check the spelling on several of your posts. Several of them are rife with spelling issues and I find it very troublesome to tell the truth nevertheless I’ll surely come back again.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    wonderful publish, very informative. I wonder why the other experts of this sector don’t understand this. You should proceed your writing. I am confident, you’ve a huge readers’ base already!

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    I’ve recently started a web site, the info you offer on this website has helped me tremendously. Thanks for all of your time & work.

    Ответ
  • в
    Permalink

    It’s really a nice and useful piece of information. I am glad that you shared this helpful information with us. Please keep us up to date like this. Thank you for sharing.

    Ответ

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *