Вазъияти оммаи халқ дар кишвари Туркистон ва Аморати Бухоро — Донишхона

Вазъияти оммаи халқ дар кишвари Туркистон ва Аморати Бухоро

Дар натиҷаи ба Россия ҳамроҳ шудани Осиёи Миёна шаклҳои асримиёнагии хоҷагӣ беш аз пеш вайрон гардид: дар солҳои 80-ум нуфуси шаҳрҳо афзуда, нахустин корхонаҳои саноатӣ ба вуҷуд омаданд. Дар дохили феодализм муносибатҳои капиталистӣ торафт қувват мегирифт. Меҳнаткашони тоҷик, ӯзбек, туркман, қирғиз ва дигар халқҳое, ки таҳти истисмори феодалони маҳаллӣ, рӯҳониёни иртиҷоъпараст, бойҳо ва судхӯрҳо қарор гирифта буданд, пас аз Осиёи Миёнаро истило кардани ҳукумати подшоҳӣ дучори ҷабру зулми иловагии амалдорони ҳукумати подшоҳӣ, тоҷирон ва судхӯрони беруна гардиданд.

Пас аз ба Россия ҳамроҳ шудани Осиёи Миёна дере нагузашта дар Хуҷанд фабрикаҳои на чандон калони коркарди ашё кушода шуданд, ки онҳоро ҳам соҳибкорони рус ва ҳам бойҳои маҳаллӣ таъсис медоданд. Соли 1870 фабрикаи пиллакашӣ кушода шуд. Соли 1873 дар қишлоқи Деҳмойи қарибии Хуҷанд як савдогари рус заводи хурди шаробкашӣ кушод. Ғайр аз ин заводҳои шиша, чарм (дар Ӯротеппа) ва меваю арақ сохта шуданд. Солҳои 1891-92 аввалин заводҳои пахта ба кор даромаданд. Соли 1895 дар Хуҷанд аллакай 16 корхонаи саноатии заводмонанд кор мекарданд, ки 125 коргар доштанд. Дар охирҳои асри ХIХ дар шаҳр 5 заводи пахта вуҷуд дошт, ки дутои онҳо аз они бойҳои маҳаллӣ буд.

Вазъияти аҳолӣ дар аморати Бухоро, ки қисми зиёди тоҷикони Осиёи Миёна дар он ҷо зиндагӣ мекарданд, назар ба кишвари Туркистон бадтар буд.

Усули идораи аморат, ки пеш аз истилои ҳукумати подшоҳӣ мавҷуд буд, бе ҳеҷ гуна тағйирот давом кардан гирифт. Аморати Бухоро ба 27 вилоят (бекигарӣ) тақсим гардида, ба ҳар яке аз онҳо бек ё ҳоким, қозӣ, раис ва муфтӣ аз тарафи амир таъин карда мешуд. Ҳоким мебоист корҳои давлатӣ, маъмурӣ ва зироатиро идора мекард, қозӣ дар асоси шариат корҳои маҳкамаро ба ҷо меовард, раис аз тарафи аҳолӣ иҷро шудани фармоишоти дину шариатро назорат менамуд ва муфтӣ ҳамчун «донандаи» конунҳои шариат дурустӣ ё худ нодурустии ин ва ё он ҳодиса ва иқдомотро фаҳмонда медод. Ҳамаи ин касон дар навбати аввал ва асосан манфиати доираҳои ҳукм-рон ва фоидаҳои шахсии худро таъмин мекарданд. Ҳокимони вилоятҳо, ки ба воситаи амлокдорҳо ва дигар одамони худ корҳои замин ва молия, ҷамъ кардани хироҷ, ушр ва ғайраро идора менамуданд, дар ҳалли ин масъалаҳо комилан худсарона амал мекарданд, аз аҳолӣ чӣ ситондан ва ба хазина чӣ супурдани онҳоро касе тафтиш намекард.

Мингбошӣ, амин, оқсаққол ва арбобҳо, ки ба сифати намояндаи аҳолӣ таъин мешуданд, одатан ба кирдори ҳоким ва дигар амалдорони амир пайравӣ мекарданд. Ин ҳол боиси ривоҷ ёфтани ғоратгарӣ ва порахӯрӣ гардида, ба иқтисодиёт зарбаи сахт ворид меовард ва зиндагонии бе ин ҳам сахти аҳли меҳнатро ба дараҷаи тоқатнопазирӣ мерасонид.

Хусусан аҳволи оммаи васеи мардуми Бухорои шарқӣ бағоят вазнин буд. Қариб тамоми аҳолии ин маҳалҳоро тоҷикон ташкил медоданд. Ҳукумати амирӣ аслан Бухорои шарқиро чун мустамликаи худ қарор дода, дар ин ҷо назар ба қисми ғарбии аморат тартиботи сахттаре ҷорӣ намуд. Табақаҳои ашрофи қадимаи ин ҷо, сипоҳ ва нӯкарҳо, рӯҳониён, заминдорони калон ва бойҳо ба такягоҳи аморат табдил ёфтанд. Ба ин гурӯҳҳои болонишини истисморкунанда аз баҳодур  (дар бекии Ғарм аламон) то додхоҳ  ҳар гуна рутба ва мансабҳо дода мешуд. Мансабҳои олитар фақат ба сипоҳиёни дарбори амир бахшиш мегардид. Амир ба ивази маош ба ин сипоҳиён андози тамоми як деҳаро мебахшид. Деҳқонони ин қишлоқ амалан дар ҳолати крепостноӣ буданд.

Ин деҳқонон комилан дар ихтиёри танхоҳхӯр буданд. Соҳиби танхоҳ бо майли худ духтарҳоро мебурд, ҳавлиҳои деҳқононро кашида мегирифт ва боз ҳар чӣ ки хоҳад, мекард. Дар аморат мансабу вазифаҳои баланд рӯйрост хариду фурӯш мешуд, ки ин ҳам аҳволи мардумро беш аз пеш табоҳтар менамуд. Солҳое, ки дар Қаротегин ҳокимони амир Алмосбек (1886-1892) ва Муҳаммадмуродбии парвоначӣ (1842-1904) ҳукмронӣ мекарданд, хариду фурӯши мансабу вазифа ва унвону рутба қариб, ки ба расмият даромада буд. Собиқ амлокдори Ҳоит — Мирзо Нуруллобек хабар додааст, ки барои нӯкари оддӣ шудан 1200-2000 танга ришва додан лозим буд. Агар ин гуна нӯкар дар шаҳр ва ё қалъае ба хизмати ҳарбӣ таъин шавад, аз ҳама гуна андоз озод карда шуда, ғайр аз ин барои таъмини маош ба ихтиёраш ду «буна» хоҷагии деҳқонӣ дода мешуд. Агар нӯкар худаш ҳавлию боғу замин дошта бошад, дар ин сурат ба вай «буна» дода намешуд, вале ба ҳар ҳол ягон андозе ҳам намедод. Мансаби қаровулбегӣ хеле қиматтар, 2-4 ҳазор танга меистод. Ба ихтиёри қаровулбегӣ 4 «буна» дода мешуд. Қаровулбегие, ки дар хизмати амир бошаду дар айни ҳол молу мулку замин ҳам дошта бошад, ӯҳдадор буд, ки ба фоидаи хазинаи амир ушр (даҳяки ҳосил) ва «амал», яъне 21 танга хироҷи заминро ҳам диҳад.

Мансаби мирохур 3-5 ҳазор танга меистод. Ба ихтиёри мирохур 4-10 «буна» дода шуда, худаш ғайр аз ушр аз тамоми хироҷу андозҳо озод карда мешуд.

Тӯқсабо барои соҳиб шудан ба мансаб бояд 5-10 ҳазор танга ришва медод. Ба ихтиёраш бошад, то сад «буна» дода мешуд ва худ аз ҳама андозҳо озод буд.

Мансаби аз ин болотар эшикоғобошӣ ба соҳибаш 6–15 ҳазор танга меафтид, вале 150-200 «буна» мегирифту андозе намедод.

Ниҳоят мансаби «бий», ки онро худи амир медод (дигар мансабҳои аз ин поёнро худи беги Қаротегин мефурӯхт ва аз ин хариду фурӯш хӯҷаинаш, яъне амирро ҳатто огоҳ ҳам намекард), ба соҳибаш ба пули калон – 10-20 ҳазор танга меафтид. Вале бар ивази ин ҳар як бий (онҳо ҳамагӣ дар Қаротегин аз даҳ нафар беш набуданд) то 300 буна мегирифт, ки бо ҷабру зулми гӯшношунид онҳоро истисмор карда, қусури хароҷоташро мебаровард.

Мансабу рутбаҳои динӣ ҳам бемалол хариду фурӯш мешуду дар ин бобат ҳам як навъ «тақсимоти меҳнат» вуҷуд дошт, яъне мансабҳои поёниро бек тақсим мекарду мансабҳои болоро худи амир мефурӯхт. Ҳуқуқи додани мансабу унвони қозикалон, ду ноиби он ва раис фақат ба амир тааллуқ дошт ва дар ин бобат фақат худи амир ёрлиқ дода метавонист. Инро ҳам ҳатман гуфтан даркор, ки қобилияти давлатдорӣ, истеъдоди роҳбарию ташкилӣ бар ин сифатҳои шахс мутлақо ба эътибор гирифта намешуд. Ҳар касе, ки бештар пора диҳад, соҳиби ҳуқуқу имконияти бештаре мешуду тақдири садҳо, ҳазорон ҳазор деҳқону косибонро, ки дар муҳити тираи аморат чун ғуломони бе-забон умр ба сар мебурданд, ҳал мекард.

Дар тамоми дигар бекиҳои аморат вазъият айнан чунин буд.  Албатта, ин гуна тартибот ба маъмурони амир маъқул ва мувофиқи табъ буд. Онҳо ҳатто дар хурдтарин мансаб нишаста, дар зарфи ду-се сол сарвати бисёре ҷамъ мекарданд. Хотирнишон бояд кард, ки вақте ки дар соли 1917 амир барои амалдорон вобаста ба вазифаашон маоши муайян муқаррар карданӣ ва андозҳои худсаронаро барҳам доданӣ шуд, ин чунон мавҷи эътироз ва норизоиятиро ба вуҷуд овард, ки амир ба даст кашидан аз чунин нияти худ маҷбур гардид.

Ҳокимони вилоятҳо, алалхусус дар Бухорои шарқӣ, дар ғорат ва таҳқир кардани аҳолӣ ягон ҳадду ҳудудро намедонистанд. Яке аз сайёҳони рус дар хусуси давраи ҳукмронии Мирмурод ном ҳокими Қаротегин чунин навиштааст: «Ин як солномаи тамомест аз кирдукори бераҳмона ва худсарии бениҳоят».  Ин ҳоким садҳо деҳқононро ба адои корҳои ройгон маҷбур мекард. Ӯ устоҳои дуредгарро дар Ғарм чанд моҳ дар сармои зимистон бемузд кор фармуда буд.

Ҳамаи заминҳои аморати Бухоро ба чунин категорияҳои юридикӣ: заминҳои амлокӣ, амирӣ, вақф ва милк тақсим шуда буд. Заминҳои хусусӣ нисбатан кам буда, ба бойҳо ва амалдорони калон тааллуқ доштанд.

Деҳқононе, ки дар қитъаҳои хурди заминҳои амлокӣ ва вақфҳо кор мекарданд, амалан дар вазъияти крепостноӣ буданд. Ба ивази истифодаи порчаҳои ночизи замин аз онҳо дар шаклҳои гуногун молиёти зиёде ситонда мешуд.

Деҳқонон аксар вақт бо номи «ҳашар» дар заминҳои амлокдор ва дигар амалдорони калон тамоман бемузд кор фармуда мешуданд. Онҳоро бо номи «бегор» низ ба корҳои сохтмони иморатҳои амир ва мансабдорони ӯ, таъмир ва тоза кардани ҷӯйборҳо ва ғайра ҷалб менамуданд. Деҳқонон ӯҳдадор буданд, ки маҷбуриятҳои гуногуни ҳамлунақлиро ҳам ба ҷо оваранд. Тамоми корҳо аксаран аз чор се ҳиссаи вақти деҳқонро мегирифт.

Масалан, дар бекигарии собиқи Ҳисор чунин навъҳои андоз вуҷуд дошт. Деҳқонон барои истифода аз заминҳои обӣ хумс, яъне панҷяки ҳосилотро ва аз заминҳои лалмӣ ушр, яъне даҳяки ҳосилотро медоданд. Ғайр аз ин, амлокдор бо ивази «меҳнат»-и худ дар кори андозғундорӣ расман аз ҳар як ботман (тақрибан 12 пуд) ҳосили замини обӣ як нимхӯрд (32 қадоқ) ва замини лалмӣ нимчоряк (8 қадоқ) ҳақ меситонид. Доруға (амалдори хурди хироҷ), ки ба хирман назорат мекард, ба тариқи кавсан мӯҳрона мегирифт. Ҳиссаи мироб баробари ҳиссаи амлокдор буд. Оқсаққол аз ҳар ботман нимчоряк, ё худ панҷяки нимхӯрд дарёфт мекард. Ниҳоят домуллоимом ҳамагӣ ду ғалбери 64 қадоқа «ҳаққи Оллоҳ» ва кавсан мегирифт. Пас аз ҳамаи инҳо дарвешу қаландарҳо омада, назр талаб мекарданд.

Илова бар хироҷи заминҳои кишт дигар хел андозҳо аз қабили закот, ки аз ҳайвонот, боғот ва муомилоти пулӣ рӯёнда мешуд, закоти чагона, андози коҳ, дала (савсор), яъне андози мӯинае, ки шикорчиҳо пайдо мекарданд, чормағзпулӣ ва амсоли инҳо вуҷуд доштанд.

Гаевский ном инженер, ки дар он солҳо ба бекии Қӯрғонтеппа сафар карда буд, манзараи аз тарафи амалдорони амир толону тороҷ шудани деҳқононро хеле аҷиб тасвир кардааст: «Одатан, ҳамин ки деҳқон ҳосилро даравида дар хирманҷо кӯфта, зери назорати нозир онро тӯб мекунад, амалдори дигар, яъне доруға омада онро мӯҳр мекунад. Тарзи мӯҳргузорӣ чунин аст: доруға дар болои пораҳои кулӯх мӯҳр монда, он кулӯхпораҳоро дар болои тӯби гандум ба тартиби муайян мечинад. Пас аз ин дигар хирманро посбонӣ намекунанд, зеро агар ба тӯби гандум андак даст расад, ҷои кулӯхпораҳо дигар шуда, дуздӣ ошкор мешавад.

Пас аз мӯҳр кардани ҳосил онро амлокдор омада мебинад ва тахминан бо назардид ва як газ чӯб муайян мекунад, ки дар хирман чанд ботман ҳосил ҳаст. Дар ин хел мавридҳо одатан деҳқон доду вой мебардорад ва аслашро гирем, дар ин сурат мувофиқи қонун ҳосилро баркашида санҷидан даркор, вале ин корро дар ҳеҷ куҷо намекунанд. Баъзан чун шоҳидони холис оқсаққол, ё амини деҳро ҷеғ мезананд, вале одатан худи амлокдор дафтарчаашро мебарораду ба доду войи деҳқон нигоҳ накарда менависад мемонад, ки «фалонӣ фалон қадар ҳосил гирифтааст».

Миқдори умумии ҳосил ана ҳамин хел тақрибан муайян мешаваду вале минбаъд кор аз ин ҳам бадтар мегардад. Нархи бозорро мепурсанду вале онро 10-15 фоиз кам карда ба деҳқон хабар медиҳанд. Баъд мувофиқи қоидаи амир ҳафтяк ё панҷяки ҳосил гуфта, сеяк ва ҳатто нисфи онро кашида мегиранд. Бар замми ин агар андоз ба шакли пул талаб карда шавад, ҳама гандуми худро ба бозор мебароранд, ки талабот ба он зиёд нест ва нархи гандум якбора паст шуда меравад ва барои додани пули сеяки ҳосил (ки бе ин ҳам миқдори умумии ҳосилро бардурӯғ зиёд навишта буданд), деҳқон маҷбур мешуд, ки ду маротиба бештар гандум фурӯшад».

Ин толону тороҷи рӯирости ваҳшиёна дар тамоми ноҳияҳои аморат дида мешуд. Капитани штаби генералии Россия Покотило, ки соли 1886 аз Деҳнав ба Қаротоғ сафар карда буд, ниҳоят дар ҳайрат мондааст, ки чаро дар заминҳои ду тарафи роҳи 50-60 чақрима, ки нағз обёрӣ ҳам мешуданд, ҳеҷ чиз накоштаанд. Маълум шуд, ки ба касофати хироҷу андозҳои миёншикан мардум қишлоқҳои худро партофта, ба кӯҳҳо гурехта рафтаанд. Дар кӯҳсорон онҳо чорво парварида, барои эҳтиёҷи худ дар заминҳои лалмӣ андак кишт мекардаанду бас. «На молу мулк ва худи ҳаёти табааи амири Бухоро ягон василаи таъмин надоранд,– менависад Покотило ва илова мекунад: — натиҷаи ин авзои нохуши моддию маънавии халқ ҳамин аст, ки мардум ба ҳукумати амир ва ба намояндагони ин ҳукумат – бекҳо табиатан нафрат доранд».

Дар воқеъ, вақте тоҷикон — ин мардуми меҳнатдӯст, ки чандин асрҳо пеш дар ин ҷойҳо маскун шудаанду соҳиби маҳорати баланду қадимии зироатпарварӣ мебошанд, маҷбур шудаанд, ки замину ҳавливу ҷойҳои худро партофта, қариб ҳаёти нимкӯчӣ ба сар баранд, пас аз ин нисбат ба як даста феодалони ғоратгар, ки сардорашон амир буд, нафрат надошта чӣ ҳам дошта метавонистанд?!

Ҳатто П.М.Лессар барин мушоҳид, ки аз рӯи вазифааш «гумоштаи сиёсии императори Россия дар аморати Бухоро» буду ба танқиди сахти тартиботи амир ҳеҷ ҳавас надошт, дар «Қайдҳо оид ба авзои сиёсӣ ва иқтисодии аморат» (1891) ном асараш менависад, ки дар айни андозҷамъкунӣ бисёр сӯиистеъмолу худсариҳо мешавад, миқдори ҳосилро тақрибию бардурӯғ муайян мекунанду андозро на дар шакли мол, балки пулакӣ меситонанд ва зимнан пули андоз аз будаш хеле зиёдтар рӯёнда мешавад».

П.М.Лессар маҷбур шудааст иқрор намояд, ки «ҳатто дар ноҳияҳои бойтарин ҳам деҳқонон заминҳои худро партофта, ба Самарқанд гурехта истодаанд, то аз подоши бақияҳои беохири андоз раҳо ёбанд. Ононе, ки илоҷи фирор надоштанд, барои адои қарзи андоз буду шуди худро, ҳатто духтарони худро ба Самарқанд бурда фурӯхтанд ва бо ҳамин онҳоро ба роҳи бад андохтанд».

П.М.Лессар гапашро давом дода менависад: «Ҳамаи ононе, ки ба водии Зарафшон ва ноҳияҳои ҳамҷавори он рафтаанд, хабар оварданд, ки ҳоли мардум табоҳ аст. Ҳоли мардуми бекиҳои кӯҳистони Бухорои ҷанубӣ ва шарқӣ бошад, аз ин ҳам бадтар аст, зеро дар ин ҷойҳо барои андак беҳ шудани аҳволи мардум ҳеҷ кор карда нашудааст. Ин касофатро рафъ кардан муҳол аст»–ғамгинона суханашро ба поён мерасонад П.М.Лессар.

Дар воқеъ, чанд сол пеш аз ин қайдҳои иқтибос овардаи мо, 16 ноябри 1887 сардори уезди Самарқанд ба губернатори ҳарбии вулуси Самарқанд навишта буд, ки мардуми Кӯлобу Дарвозу Қаротегин «аз муомилаи ноодилонаву сахт ва зулму асорати доимии ҳукуматдорони Бухоро ба танг омада шӯриш карданд». Вай навишта буд, ки мардуми ин ҷойҳо «дар маҷлиси умумии худ қарор додаанд, ки илоҷе ёфта, аз Бухоро ҷудо шудан даркор».

Вазъият дар дигар ҷойҳо ҳам пуршиддат буд.

Ҷангу ҷидолҳои дохилии феодалӣ ва ба ҳукумати подшоҳӣ додани товони ҷанг ба вазъияти хазинаи аморати Бухоро бетаъсир намонд. Амир Музаффар роҳҳои пур кардани ҷои ин хароҷотро ҷустуҷӯ менамуд. Қисми заминҳои вақф ба фоидаи аморат мусодира карда шуд. Илова бар ин, амир ба қозиҳо иҷозат дод, ки бо ҳар восита аз аҳолӣ пул ҷамъ кунанд. Ҳамчунин фармоишоте буд, ки як ҳиссаи ин пулҳо ба тариқи тӯҳфа, молу мулки бесоҳиб ва бақияҳо ба худи амир дода шавад. Ҳамин тариқа, муҳимтарин вазифаи аморати Бухоро аз тороҷи халқи меҳнаткаш ва фурӯ нишондани ҳама гуна муқобилатҳои зидди ин ғоратгарӣ иборат гардида буд.

Ҳар он касе, ки изҳори норозигӣ мекард ё лоақал андаке ба амалдорони амир итоат накарданӣ мешуд, ба ҷазоҳои ваҳшиёна гирифтор мегардид. Ҳар як ҳоким метавонист одамонро бе ҳеҷ як асос ба зиндон партояд ва аз хонаву оилаашон маҳрум созад. Маҳбусони бадбахт, ки бо ягон баҳонае ба зиндон афтода буданд, дар шароити тоқатфарсое зиндагӣ мекарданд. Онҳо дар зиндонҳои тираву ифлос бо пойҳои кундазада ва дасту гардани ишкелбанд дар замини мартуб ва ё рӯи як бӯрёе нишаста ё хуфта аз ҳисоби бахшишҳои хешовандони худ ва садақаи хайркунандагон рӯз мегузаронданд. Касоне, ки хешу ақрабо доштанд, гоҳо ба воситаи пули зиёде ришва додан ба ҳоким аз зиндон озод мешуданд, вале аксаран одамони бекас тамоми умри худро дар маҳбусӣ ба сар мебурданд. Дар шаҳрҳои аморати Бухоро «гунаҳкорон»-ро одатан дар рӯзҳои бозор, дар пеши назари мардум ҷазо медоданд. Барои андак гуноҳе шахси гунаҳкорро ҳафтоду панҷ чӯб мезаданд, зарбаҳо бо дарраҳои сахт бо шиддати тамом ба тахтапушти бараҳна расонда мешуд.

Дар аморати Бухоро тарзҳои ваҳшиёнаи қатлу куштор, ба мисли овехтан, буридани гулӯи маҳкум ва ба воситаи ресмон ва ғарғара қин карда куштан хеле бисёр ба амал меомад.

Ҳукумати подшоҳӣ ҳокимияти худро дар Осиёи Миёна барқарор карда бошад ҳам, барои тағйир додани сохти истибдоди Бухоро ҳеҷ гуна чорае надид, балки зиёда аз он, қасдан ин сохтро боз ҳам пойдортар гардонд. Агарчи одамони пешқадами Россияи онвақта борҳо ба муқобили «тартибот»-и аморати Бухоро изҳори эътироз намуданд, аммо бо вуҷуди ин пуштибонии ҳукумати подшоҳӣ аз амир ва усули давлатдории ӯ давом кардан гирифт.

Чунин буд хусусияти асосии авзои сиёсии Осиёи Миёна. Ҳукумати подшоҳӣ тартиботи дарун ба дарун гандидаву пӯсидаи феодалию асримиёнагии Бухоро ва Хеваро фаъолона дастгирӣ мекард. Ин иттиҳоди болонишинони ҳукмрону доро буд, ки бар зидди он тадриҷан иттиҳоди меҳнаткашон ва оммаҳои истисморшавандаи ҳамаи миллатҳо арзи вуҷуд менамуд.

П.М.Лессар иқрор мекард, ки: «Калонони Бухоро ва мардум шакке надоранд, ки ҳама гуна шӯриш бо аслиҳаи қӯшунҳои рус пахш мегардад, худсарии амир бошад, ҳад надорад».

Тақрибан пас аз бист сол генерал-губернатори Туркистон — Самсонов дар маълумоте, ки ба номи Раиси Совети Вазирон 29 декабри соли 1911 ирсол карда буд, таъбири аниқтару дақиқтареро кор мефармояд: «Ягона монеаи аз зулми амир озод шудан (яъне озод шудани аҳолии аморати Бухоро – Б.Ғ.) сарнайзаҳои қӯшуни русҳо мебошад».  Ҳукуматдорони подшоҳӣ ононеро, ки тоҷикону ӯзбекҳову дигар меҳнаткашони Бухороро буғӣ мекарданд, ҳарҷониба дастгирӣ намуда, дар айни ҳол эътироф мекарданд, ки дар ин кишвар алангаи ғазаби халқ боло шуда истодааст. Дар ахборе, ки сардори штаби асосӣ — Н.Н.Обручев 4 декабри соли 1883 аз Тошканд гирифта буд, ин ибораҳоро дидан мумкин аст: «Амир дар тахт барои ҳамин ором нишастааст, ки ба туфайли қину азобу ҷазоҳои беохир ба дили мардум воҳима андохтааст ва бо ёрии ана ҳамин зулму тааддӣ (ва дастгирии кӯшунҳои Россияи подшоҳӣ – илова мекунем мо – Б.Ғ.) имкон ёфта, алангаи шӯру ғазаби мардумро, ки гоҳ дар ин ҷову гоҳ дар он ҷо боло мешуд, фурӯ менишонад. Дар нахустин ноомади кор револютсия мешавад, ки он на ба худи амир, на ба писараш– вориси тахт Сайид Абдулаҳадхон тараҳҳум намекунад».

Воқеияти Осиёи Миёна дар даҳсолаҳои минбаъда нишон дод, ки ин гуна баҳо ба вазъияти онвақта комилан дуруст будааст.

Вазъияти оммаи халқ дар кишвари Туркистон ва Аморати Бухоро: 342 комментария

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