Адабиёти тоҷик дар ибтидои асри ХХ — Донишхона

Адабиёти тоҷик дар ибтидои асри ХХ

Фаъолияти адибони пешқадами тоҷик

Дар ибтидои асри ХХ фаъолияти баъзе адибони пешқадами тоҷик басо вусъат ёфт. Ҳайрат, Саҳбо, Асирӣ, Айнӣ ва баъзе дигарон аз ҷумлаи он адибон буданд. Шиносоӣ бо адабиёти рус ба эҷодиёти онҳо таъсири бузург расонд.

Ҳайрат (1878–1902) шоири боистеъдод ва ғазалсарои забардаст буд. Аммо шаклу мазмуни кӯҳнаи назм ба Ҳайрат тангӣ мекарданд ва ӯ дар назм роҳҳои нав меҷуст. Дар ҳаёти тираву тори аморати Бухоро вай нури умеде надида, рӯҳафтода шуд ва дар эҷодиёташ ҳам оҳангҳои яъсу ҳузну ғаму андӯҳ хеле афзуд. Вале гуфтан даркор, ки Ҳайрат шеърҳое низ дорад, ки дар онҳо оҳангҳои иҷтимоӣ равшан ба назар мерасанд ва шоир дар ин шеърҳояш халқро ба маърифат даъват намуда, дар роҳи беҳбудии мардум ҷаҳд карданро сифати олии инсон мешуморад. Саҳбо худаш амалдори олимартаба буд, унвони тӯқсабо дошт. Аммо авомфиребию ҳарисию ҷоҳилии дарбориён ва амалдорони амир ба ин шоири поквиҷдон маъқул нашуд. Саҳбо аз дарбор рафт. Ашъори вай асосан лирикӣ бошад ҳам, вале ҳаҷви сахт ҳам бисёр ба назар мерасад. Соли 1918 Саҳбо бо фармони амир барои иштирок дар неҳзати озодихоҳии халқ ба қатл расонида шуд.

Тошхӯҷа Асирӣ (1864–1915) дар Хуҷанд зиндагонӣ мекард. Бо косибӣ камбағалона рӯз мегузаронд, касбаш сангиосиётарошӣ буд. Асирӣ шоири инсондӯст буд ва мегуфт, ки вазифаи адабиёт тавсифи ақлу дониш аст. Асирӣ дар ашъораш бою муллоҳои риёкорро сахт танқид карда, онҳоро «худозадагони роҳи дин» меномад ва дар ҷои дигар мегӯяд: «Ҳама хумории майхонаи шароратанд, чӣ мӯҳтасиб, чӣ мударрис, чӣ қозию, чӣ раис».  Дар як шеъраш Асирӣ менависад:

 

Оҳ, аз ин ҷинси наҷосаттинатони зӯҳдкеш,

Ҷуз ба оби теғ натвонӣ мутаҳҳар доштан.

Анкабутонанд ҳангоме, ки гиранд эътикоф,

Сайди мазлуме ғараз дар зери чодар доштан.

Суфпӯшонанд, аммо дар ғами дебои Рум,

Аз кулоҳ ин ҷо ҳавои зеби қайсар доштан.

Ҷумла тарророни роҳи дину имони туанд.

Чашм бар ҳамёни симу кисаи зар доштан.

Аз сару кори намозу рӯзаи эшон мапурс!

Хешро дар зери бори охират дар доштан.

 

Асирӣ тарғиботчии фаъоли илму дониш буд ва ақидае дошт, ки бо роҳи маърифат халқро аз ҷаҳолат ва таассуби динӣ раҳо додан мумкин аст. Вай имони комил дошт, ки мактабҳои дунявӣ, илму маданият мардумро хушбахт карда метавонанд. Масалан, вай дар як шеъраш мегӯяд:

 

Шуморо шояд акнун ҷаҳд кардан,

Ғами ислоҳи кори хеш хӯрдан,

Макотибҳои нав эҷод кардан,

Раҳи дарси наве иршод кардан,

Қироатхонаҳо барпо намудан,

Мақоми маслиҳат иншо намудан,

Ба авлоди азиз миннат ниҳодан,

Ба нури дидагон фан ёд додан,

Сару кори дигар бояд гирифтан

Ба роҳи тоза бояд пеш рафтан,

Сари худ дар ҳама сӯрох хастан,

Зи ҳар дар роҳи истиқбол ҷустан.

 

Садриддин Айнӣ (1878–1954) ҳам аз адибони тараққипарвари он давра буд, ки соли 1909 аввалин китоби дарсии дунявӣ «Таҳзиб-ус-сибён»-ро таълиф кард. Дар ҳамон солҳо Айнӣ бисёр шеърҳое навишта буд, ки ба масъалаҳои муҳимми иҷтимоӣ бахшида шудаанд.

Тамоми адибони мазкур дар эҷодиёти худ хусусиятҳои мусбати маорифпарварии Аҳмади Донишро маҳфуз дошта, бо роҳи маърифат ба халқ хизмат мекарданд, аморатро зери танқид мегирифтанд ва бо Россия алоқаву робита карданро ташвиқ менамуданд. Вале бояд қайд кунем, ки онҳо фаъолияти маорифпарварии худро бо вазифаю талаботи револютсия, ки рӯз аз рӯз вусъат меёфт, мутобиқ карда натавонистанд, ба ҳамин сабаб, ақидаи онҳо ва, умуман, фаъолияти онҳо ба андозае маҳдуд ва либералӣ буд. Зиёда аз ин баъзе аз ин адибон пайрави идеологияи ҷадидизм шуданд. Тадриҷан, адибони равшанфикр ва дилсофу поквиҷдон ба андозаи ривоҷи револютсия боварӣ ҳосил карданд, ки ба кӯчаи ҷадидӣ даромада хато рафтаанд. Онҳо бо мурури замон фаҳмиданд, ки фақат партияи коммунистӣ қудрат дорад ба халқ озодии ҳақиқӣ ва маърифат оварад. Ба қавли устод Айнӣ, партия ӯро ва ӯ барин бисёр зиёиёни поквиҷдони ҷӯяндаро «аз ботлоқи ҷадидизм берун кашид». Ин қабил одамони ботинан тараққипарвар ҷадидиро қатъиян тарк карда, ба мавқеи бинокори сотсиализм, ба мавқеи маърифати коммунистии халқ қарор мегирифтанд.

 

Сарчашма: «Тоҷикон» — и Б.Ғафуров

Адабиёти тоҷик дар ибтидои асри ХХ: 73 комментария

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