Достони «Муш ва гурба» — и Убайди Зоконӣ — Донишхона

Достони «Муш ва гурба» — и Убайди Зоконӣ

Достони «Муш ва гурба» — и Убайди Зоконӣ

Муқаддима

  1. Мундариҷаи гоявии достони «Муш ва гурба»
  2. Дар симои гурба — табақаи ҳоким ва дар симои муш — табақаи мазлум

Хулоса

Убаӣди Зоконӣ дар таърихи адабиёти классикии форсу тоҷик ҳамчун нависандаи ҳаҷвнигору шӯхтаъб маълуму машҳур гаштааст.

У ҳамчун нависандаи шӯхтабъ шинохтаву эътироф гардидааст.

Убаӣди Зоконӣ соли 1270 дар хонадони вазир ба дунё омадааст. Осори бадеии Убаӣд аз ганҷинаҳои адабиёти классики асрҳои XIII-XIV форсии тоҷикӣ ба шумор мераванд. Эҷодиёти ӯ бештар бо эҷодиёти даҳонии халқ алоқамандии ногусастание дорад. Мазмун ва мундариҷаи асосии осори ӯ аз танқиди фикру ақидаҳои кӯҳнашуда, афкори зиддихалқии замона, зулму золимӣ, ҷаҳолатпарастӣ, рафтору гуфтору кирдори ношоиставу баъзе урфу одат ва расму русуми ношоистаи мардум ва тарғибу ташвиқи ақидаҳои ҳаётдӯстӣ, муҳаббати поки инсонӣ иборат аст. Тарзу тариқи нигориши нависанда тавассути ҳазлу шӯхӣ бошад

ҳам, аксари онҳо мазмуни ҷиддии танқидӣ дорад, ки худи муаллиф ба он таъкид менамояд:

Ба мазоҳат пагуфтам ин гуфтор,

Ҳазл бигзору ҷид аз ӯ бардор.

Яке аз достонҳои Убаӣди Зоконӣ, ки ба мавзӯи иҷтимоӣ, яъне ҷангу ҷидолҳои баӣнихудии феодалҳо бахшида шудааст, ин достони «Мушу гурба» мебошад. Мазмуни асосии достон аз воқеаҳои солҳои 1335-1360, ки давраи ваӣронии ҳукумати марказчи феодалии муғулҳои Эрон ва авҷи саркашии феодалҳои маҳаллиро дар бар мегирад, иборат мебошад. Достон аз муқаддима, сюжети асосӣ ва хотима иборат аст. Огози достон чунин аст:

Агар дорӣ ту ақлу допишу ҳуш,

Биё бшинав, ҳадиси гурбаву муш!

Достони «Мушу гурба» дар шакли қасида суруда шудааст. Маълумоти аввалин дар бораи гурба чунин огоз мешавад:

Аз қазои фалак яке гурба,

Буд чун аждаҳо ба Кирмоно.

Гурба барои шикори муш ба шаробхона медарояд. Муш омада аз хум маӣ менӯшад ва маету аласт шуда, ба саӣди гурба меафтад:

Ногаҳон цаету мушро бигрифт,

Чун палате шикори кӯҳоно.

Гурба он мушро бикушту бихурд, Сӯӣимасҷид шудӣ хиромоно.

Гурба баъди ин, гӯё, аз кардаи хеш пушаӣмон мешавад. Мушон дастаҷамъӣ ба назди гурба меоянд ва гурба боз бо фиребу наӣранг ба мушон ҳамла меоварад. Аз ин воқеа маълум мегардад, ки дӯстиву бародарии мушу гурба гаӣри қобили қабул аст. Дар охир гурба асир меафтаду бо як ҳамлаи ҷиддӣ бандро канда карда, ба мушон дзрмеафтад:

Мушаконро гирифта зад ба замин,

Ки шудаидӣ ба, хок ярсоцо.

Ва бо ҳамин, воқе^ ба фоидаи ӯ ҳал мешаваду достон низ хотима меёбад. Гурба ҳамчун аждаҳо пурқуввату тавоно тасвир ёфтааст:

Шикамаги талбу синааш чу сипар, Шердуму палангчангоно.

Дар достон гурба ҳамчун фиребгар ба қалам дода шудааст. Гурба магрур ва худпдоанд аст. Дар образи тамсилии гурба феодалҳои бузургу тавоно, вале фиребгару муфтхӯр тасвир

ёфтаанд. Хислати мушон аз рӯӣи тасвири шоир нтнаву яксон нест. Муш, бо вуҷуди магруриаш, хеле чаифу 1арсоичак аст. Мушон аз рӯӣи фикру андешаи Убаӣди Зоконп хушомадгуӣ, ришвадеҳ мебошанд. Ҷанги мушу гурба на ҷапги Гмӣни деҳқону феодалҳо мебошад, балки ҷанги баӣнп.\амдшарии худи феодалҳост. Дар охир шоир аз ин достоин тамсшшп худ панду ҳикмат гирифтанро таъкид намудааст:

Ҷони мон, панд гир аз ин қисса,

Ки шавӣ дар замони гиодоно.

Гараз аз «Мушу гурба» бархондан,

Муддао фаҳм кун писарҷоно!

Хулоса, достони «Мушу гурба»-и Убаӣди Зоконӣ дар ҳаракати озодихоҳии халқ, махсусан дар ҳаракатп сарбадорон, ки мазмун ва моҳияти зиддифеодалӣ доигг, аҳлмшггп махсус дорад. Танқиди зулму ситами инсонҳо бар якдпглр, хусусан, зулми синфи ҳоким бар мазлум ва, ҳамчунин, дар ҷонибдорӣ аз синфи мазлум ҳамчун табақаи заҳматкаши ҷомса дар достон 1 аъсирбахш ва шоистаи таҳсин аст.

 

Достони «Муш ва гурба» — и Убайди Зоконӣ: 79 комментариев

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