Тасвири симои муфтхӯрон дар повести «Марги сӯдхӯр» — и Садриддин Айнӣ — Донишхона

Тасвири симои муфтхӯрон дар повести «Марги сӯдхӯр» — и Садриддин Айнӣ

Мавзӯъ: ТАСВИРИ СИМОИ МУФТХУРОН ДАР ПОВЕСТИ «МАРГИ СУДХУР»-И САДРИДДИН АЙНӢ
Нақша:
Муқаддима
1. Мазмуни асосии повест
2. Симои Қориишкамба дар асар
Хулоса
Боиси хурсандиву сарфарозии мардуми тоҷик аст, ки фарзанди барӯманди он устод Садриддин Айнӣ сазовори унвони олии Қаҳрамони Тоҷикистон гардид. Фаъолияти илмиву адабии Айнӣ ҳанӯз аӣёми мадрасахонияш шурӯъ гардидааст. У дар мактабҳои усули нав таҳсил намуда, ҳамеша барои такмил додани ҷаҳонбинии худ саъю талошҳо мекард. Айнӣ дар ҳаёти илмиву адабӣ ва фарҳанпш Тоҷикистон фаъолона иштирок намуда, дар рушду нумӯи он саҳми бузург гузоштааст. Аз устод Айнӣ ба мо мероси зиёди илмиву адабӣ боқӣ мондааст.
Таъкид намудан зарур аст, ки дар эҷодиёти нависанда повести «Марги судхӯр» бо мазмун ва мундариҷаи худ мақоми хосса дорад. Дар нимаи асри XIX ва ибтидои асри XX дар Осиёи Миёна, хусусан дар Бухоро, судхӯрӣ дар баӣни табақаи боло ҳамчун касалии хатарнок хеле паҳн шуда буд, ки ин масъала дар повеет возеҳу равшан инъикос ёфтааст, Нависанда масъалаи судхӯриро дар симои қаҳрамони повеет Қориишкамба, ки шахеи ниҳоят хасис, муфтхӯр, мардумфиреб ва дурӯяву пулпараст будааст, нишон медиҳад. Устод Садриддин Айнӣ муносибати табақаи судхӯронро ба табақаҳои мухталифи аҳолии Бухоро ифода намудааст. Хасисӣ ва муфтхӯрӣ дар симои Қориишкамба дар муомила бо қиморбозон, сартарошон, дӯкондорон, сароӣбонон, боӣбачаҳо, бо оилаи худ ва талабагони Мадраса хеле хуб мушоҳида карда мешавад. Айнӣ дар симои Қориишкамба на танҳо худи ӯро тасвир намудааст, балки ба ин восита кулли судхӯрони ҷомеаро дар назар дорад. Бо ин тарзу тариқи ифода устод Айнӣ хостааст, ки бадбиниву нафрати мардуми оддиро нисбат ба хислатҳои ношоями судхӯрони давру замон, хусусан, риёкорону танпарварон зиёд намояд. Нависанда аз муҳити иҷтимоии Бухорои амирӣ норозӣ аст. Зеро худи муҳити дарбор ба ноорому ноосуда гаштани вазъ мусоидат кардаанд. Муҳити иҷгимоии Бухорои xaMOHBaKfapo зери танқиди сахт мегирад. Айнӣ дар тасвири қаҳрамони асар — Қориишкамба ва амалиётҳои ӯ аз тамоми тасвирҳои бадеӣ моҳирона истифода кардааст. Қориишкамба бо роҳҳои гуногун мехоҳад маблағи бисёре ҷамъ намояд. Нависанда дар баробари он ки роҳҳои сарватмандшавии ӯро нишон додааст, таъкид бар он дорад, ки ӯ дар як вақт боиси бадбахтии мардум низ будааст. Фаъолияти судхӯрии Қориишкамба рӯз ба рӯз вусъат меёбад. Доираи фаъолияти ӯ, ҳатто, ба деҳот низ наздик мешавад. Деҳқонони камбағалро низ бо роҳу воситаҳои мухталифу ҳиллаву наӣрангбозӣ ба доми фиреби худ мекашад. Тавре мебинем, симои Қориишкамба дар асар ҳамчун шахсе, ки саропо банда нафс, ҳирс, тамаъ, бандаи пулу мол ва сарват мебошад, тасвир ёфтааст. Ва ниҳоят, ин бандаи пулу молу сарват қурбони сарватҳои ҷамъкардаи худ мегардад. Зеро, дар Бухоро пирӯзии инқилоб-судхӯрон, муфтхӯрон ва ҷаҳони сармояро сарнагун месозад. Симои Қориишкамба дар қатори беҳтарин образҳои ҳаҷвии эҷодкардаи нависандагони ҷаҳонӣ ба монанди Шекспир, Балзак, Плюшкин ва Ҳоҷиоғо қарор мегирад. Устод Айнӣ фикру андешаи хешро бо баӣти зерин хулоса менамояд:
Судхур аз пули худ нон шиканад гар ба масал,
Шиша сандон шиканад, атола дандон шиканад.

Тасвири симои муфтхӯрон дар повести «Марги сӯдхӯр» — и Садриддин Айнӣ: 116 комментариев

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