Тасвири наслҳо дар романи «Ғуломон» — и Садриддин Айнӣ — Донишхона

Тасвири наслҳо дар романи «Ғуломон» — и Садриддин Айнӣ

Мавзӯъ: ТАСВИРИ НАСЛҲО ДАР РОМАНИ «ҒУЛОМОН»-И САДРИДДИН АЙНӢ
Нақша:
Муқаддима
1. Мазмуии асосии романи «Ғуломон»
2. Тасвири наслҳо дар романи «Ғуломон»
Хулоса
Устод Садриддин Аӣнӣ дар таърихи адабиёти муосири тоҷик ҳамчун шоири бузург, нависандаи забардаст, рӯзноманигор, забоншиноси варзида ва олими намоён маълуму машҳур буда, аз барҷастатарин шахсияти фарҳангии халқи тоҷик ва асосгузори адабиёти муосири тоҷик шинохтаву эътироф гардидааст.
Садриддин Аӣнӣ 15-уми апрели соли 1878 дар яке аз деҳаҳои хушманзараи Соктареи тумани Ғиждувони аморати Бухоро таваллуд ёфтаааст. Гузаштагони Аӣнӣ аз аҳли кишоварзон будаанд. Аз сабаби сахтии рӯзгор ба касбҳои бофандагиву сангиосиётарошӣ низ машгул будаанд.
Устод Аӣнӣ муаллифи асарҳои зиёди насрӣ мебошад. Яке аз асарҳое, ки дар эҷодиёти Аӣнӣ ҳам аз ҷиҳати ҳаҷм ва ҳам аз нигоҳи мазмуну мундариҷа мавқеи муҳимро ишгол менамояд, ин романи «Ғуломон» мебошад. Романи «Ғуломон» аз панҷ қисм иборат буда, ҳаёти зиёда аз 100-солаи сиёсиву иҷтимоӣ ва иқтисодии мардуми меҳнаткаши Осиёи Миёна ва манзараҳои ғуломфурӯшии ибтидои асри Х1Х-ро инъикос менамояд. Қаҳрамонони марказии асар, аксаран, ғуломон ва насли онҳо ба шумор мераванд.
Қаӣд кардан лозим аст, ки Садриддин Айнӣ тавассути наслҳои гуногуни ғуломон тағӣиротҳои аз ҳама муҳими рӯҳӣ ва сиёсию иҷтимоии халқҳои заҳматкашу бенавои Осиёи Миёнаро ба таври воқеӣ тасвир намудааст.
Аӣнӣ дар бораи се насли ғуломон дар асар нақл мекунад. Ба сафи нали аввал, ки ҳамаи гуломону канизакон дохил мешаванд, симои Раҳимдод дар ҷои аввал қарор дорад, яъне насли якуми ғуломон аз Раҳимдод оғоз меёбад. Дар роман нависанда хостааст, ки манзараҳои хариду фурӯши ғуломон, ранҷу азоб, кулфату заҳматҳои уломон ва меҳнати сангину душвори тоқатфарсои онҳоро ба воситаи симои Раҳимдод ба хонанда хубтару беҳтар нишон диҳад, Садриддин Аӣнӣ дар симои Раҳимдод-насли аввали гуломон ашхосеро тасвир намудааст, ки онҳо аз ҳама гуна ҳуқуқҳои инсонии худ маҳруманд. Онҳо гуломию меҳнати вазнин ва ҷабру ҷафоро барои худ амри такдир донистаанд. Зеро, наели якуми гуломоне, ки нависанда тасвир намудааст, аз нигоҳи шуурнокии сиёсӣ ва иҷтимоӣ хеле ақибмонда мебошанд.
Дар нимаи дуввуми асри XIX дар муҳити иҷтимоии Осиёи Миёна тағӣиротҳои сиёсӣ ба миён омадаанд, ҷомеаи ғуломдорӣ аз баӣн рафт. Вале ҳамаи ин тагӣиротҳои сиёсӣ аҳволи пурмушаққати Раҳимдод ва дигар гуломони ба ӯ монандро беҳтар накард.
Наели дуввуми «Ғуломон», ки дар маӣдони оташи муборизаву талош барои зиндагӣ обутоб ёфтааст, дар рӯҳияи он тагӣиротҳои ҷиддие ба вуҷуд омадааст. Наели дуввум ҳамчун наели мубориз аз наели аввали бенаво қуллан фарқ дорад. Наели дуввуми «Гуломон», ки аз Эргаш-писари Раҳимдод огоз мешавад, барои аз зулму ситам озод намудани халқи меҳнаткаши давру замони худ фаъолияти хуб нишон медиҳад. Эргаш моҳияти хушбахтӣ ва саодатро дар мубориза мебинад. Наели дуввум ҳамеша дар ҳаракату ҷунбишҳои инқилобӣ буда, барои озодии ҳақиқии худ ва халқи худ аз ҳеҷ чиз рӯ намегардонад. Фаъолияти наели дуввум бо пирӯзии инқилоб ва сохтмони колхозҳо ба поён мерасад. Хулоса, наели сеюмро, нависанда фаъолтар нишон медиҳад. Наели сеюм, аз набераҳои гуломони собиқ дар даврони шӯравӣ огоз мешавад. Намояндагони ин наел куллан, озоданд. Онҳо дар кору фаъолияти худ озод ва фаъол буда, дар мубориза ба муқобили душманони синфӣ ва сохтмони ҷомеаи нав пешқадам мебошанд. Устод Садриддин Айнӣ маҳорати нависандагии худро дар навиштани ин аср нишон дода, рушду инкишофи рӯҳиву сиёсии се наслро тавассути симоҳои мухталиф воқеӣ баррасӣ намудааст.

Тасвири наслҳо дар романи «Ғуломон» — и Садриддин Айнӣ: 121 комментарий

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