«Хирадномаи Искандарӣ» — и Абдураҳмони Ҷомӣ — Донишхона

«Хирадномаи Искандарӣ» — и Абдураҳмони Ҷомӣ

Мавзӯъ: МАЗМУН ВА МУНДАРИҶАИ ҒОЯВИИ ДОСТОНИ «ХИРАДНОМАИ ИСКАНДАРӢ» — И АБДУРРАҲМОНИ ҶОМӢ
Нақша:
Ҳолу ахволи шоир
1 Мухтасари хаёт ва фаьолияги Абдурраҳмони Ҷомӣ
2, Муқцариҷаи гоявии «Хирадномаи Искандарӣ»
3, Искандар — шоҳи хаёлӣ, одил ва хирадманд
4, Мавқеи панду ахлоқ дар «Хирадномаи Искандарӣ»
Хулоса
Абдурраҳмони Ҷомӣ яке аз намояндагони бузурги адабӣ ва илмин адчбиёти классики асри XV форсу тоҷик буда, бо асарҳои гаронмояи худ шӯҳрати ҷаҳонӣ паӣдо кардааст. Номи аслии шоир Абдурраҳмон буда, Ҷомӣ тахаллуси шоирии ӯ маҳсуб мешавад, Падари бузургвори Ҷомӣ аз шахсони бомаърифати замони худ будааст.
Абдурраҳмони хурдсол бо ҳамроҳии падари бузургвораш аз вилоятк Ҷом ба шаҳри Ҳирот омада, дар мадрасаи Низомия таҳсидм плм кардааст. У аз устодони машҳури замони худ илмҳои пеитқадами замонаашро аз бар намудааст. Ҷомӣ дар даврони ҷавонӣ сафарҳои зиёде намудааст. Ин сафари шоир аз Ҳирот то Нишопуру Сабзавор, Бастому Домгону Симнон, Қазвину Ҳамадону Бағдод тӯл кашида буд. Дар охир Ҷомӣ ба шаҳри Ҳирот бармегардад ва дар он ҷо соли 1492 вафот кардааст.
Мероси адабӣ ва илмии Абдурраҳмони Ҷомӣ хеле зиёд аст. Микдори асарҳои шоирро аз 90-то зиёдтар ба қалам додаанд. Яке аз достонҳои бузургҳаҷми шоир «Ҳафт авранг» мебошад. Достони «Ҳафт авранг» дар паӣравии хамсасароёни гузашта: Низоми Ганҷавӣ ва Амир Хусрави Деҳлавӣ суруда шудааст. Достони «Ҳафт авранг» аз се маснавӣ ва чор достон иборат аст. Дар баӣни достонҳои шоир достони «Хирадномаи Искандарӣ» мавкеи бузург дорад, зеро ин достон бо мавзӯъ ва мазмуни худ дар баӣни дигар асарҳои шоир ҷоӣи намоёнеро ишгол менамояд. Таъкид намудан бамаврид аст, ки Ҷомӣ ҳангоми таълиф намудани ин достон ба достони «Искандаркома»-и Низомии Ганҷавӣ ва «Оинаи Искандарӣ»-и /\мир Хусрави Деҳлавӣ паӣравӣ кардааст. Вале, баръакси ин ду шоири бузург ва аксари достонсароёни пешин Ҷомӣ кӯшиш намудааст, ки аклу хирад, заковат ва хираду маърифати инсониро аз ҳама боло гузорад. Қаӣд кардан лозим аст, ки дар таърихи адабиёт зиёда аз 35-то «Искандарнома»-ҳо эҷод шудаанд. Аксарияти «Искандарнома»- ҳо ҷанбаи таърихи ва воқеӣ доранд. Аз ин баӣн, танҳо «Искандарнома»-и Ҷомӣ ҷанбаи хаёлӣ ва ғаӣривоқеӣ дорад. Мӯҳтавои он панду ахлоқ аст, на баёни таърихӣ ва воқеӣ. Дар ҳамаи он искандарномаҳои пешин Искандар ҳамчун шоҳи золим ба қалам дода шудааст. Вале, Искандари Ҷомӣ аз он Искандарҳо фарқи калон дорад. Дар достони «Хирадномаи Искандарӣ»-и Ҷомӣ Искандар на ҳамчун як шоҳн золим, хунхор, сарлашкар ба қалам дода шудааст, балки ҳамчун шоҳи одил тасвир ёфтааст. У, аз нигоҳи шоир, шоҳи хирадманду бомаърифат, одилу халқпарвар аст. Искандари Ҷомӣ дар натиҷаи омӯзиши илму дониш ва саӣқал додани тафаккури худ ба ин дараҷаҳо расидааст. Ҳангоме ки падари Искандар уро ба тарбияи Арасту медиҳад, Арасту аҳамияти илму донишро барои ӯ чунин бозгӯ мекунад:
Зи дониш шавад кори гетӣ ба соз,
Зи бедонишӣ кор гардад дароз.
Зи дил cap запад сирри дониш нахуст,
Ки бар дасту по кор гардад дуруст.
Искандар бо саъю талоши зиёд аз Арасту тамоми улуми замонаашро аз бар менамояд. Саранҷом, Искандар ҳамчун шахси бомаърифат, хирадманд ва мутафаккири бузург ба воя мерасад. Искандар пас аз вафоти падар ба тахт менишинад. Искандар пас аз ҳокимиятро ба даст овардан адлу инсофро дар сарзамини худ ҷорӣ менамояд. Искандар дар низоми давлатдории худ ҳамеша маслиҳат ва машварати модар ва устоди худ Арастуро пешаи худ қарор медиҳад.
Ҳамин тариқ, шоир ба воситаи нақлу ривояти саргузашти Искандар, на танҳо баъзе масъалаҳои таълимӣ ва фикру андешаҳои пандуахлоқиро аз нигоҳи башардӯстӣ тахдилу баррасӣ менамояд, балки як ҷамъияти хаёлиеро тасвир менамояд, ки дар он ҳама табақаҳои ҷомеа баробар буда, шоҳу гадо, золиму мазлум, дорову нодор вуҷуд надорад. Аз таълифи достон чанд аср гузашта бошад ҳам, аҳамияти тарбиявии хешро гум накардааст.

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