Мазмун ва мундариҷаи «Баҳориёт» — и Сайидои Насафӣ — Донишхона

Мазмун ва мундариҷаи «Баҳориёт» — и Сайидои Насафӣ

Мавзӯъ: МАЗМУН ВА МУНДАРИҶАИ «БАҲОРИЁТ» — И САЙИДОИ НАСАФӢ
Нақша:
Муқаддима
1. Мазмун ва мундариҷаи асар
2. Симои ҳаӣвонот дар асар
Хулоса
Аз рӯйи маълумоти сарчашмаҳо Саӣидои Насафӣ дар шаҳри Бухоро таваллуд шуда бошад ҳам, аз сабаби он ки гузаштагон ва падару бобоёнаш аз Насаф будаанд, тахаллуси шоирии худро Насафӣ ниҳодааст. Малеҳои Самарқандӣ низ дар тазкираи худ «Музаккируласҳоб» Саӣидоро «Насафиюласл» гуфтааст.
Эҷодиёти шоир гуногунранг буда, дар шакли як куллиёт ба мо омада расидааст. Қисми зиёди куллиёти шоирро газалиёти у ташкил медиҳад. Саӣидо сарояндаи ғазалҳои лирикӣ будааст. Мавзӯи газалиёти шоирро асосан ишқу муҳаббат ташкил диҳад ҳам, вале мавзӯъҳо ва масъалаҳои сиёсию иҷтимоӣ, танқиди замони феодалӣ, танқиди золимону зоҳидон, ҳимояи ахли меҳнат, инъикоси ҳолу аҳволи бади худ ва фикру андешаҳои тарбиявию ахлоқӣ дар эҷодиёти ӯ мавқеи муҳим дорад. Мухаммас низ дар эҷодиёти шоир мавқеи муҳим дорад. Саӣидо ҳамчун шоири ғазалсаро дар таърихи адабиёти классикӣ маълуму машҳур гашта бошад ҳам, дар навиштани мухаммас устоди забардаст будааст. Осори дигари ӯ, ки ба куллиёти ӯ ворид гардидааст, ашъори ба ҳунармандон бахшидашуда, маснавиҳои тамсилии «Баҳориёт» ва «Шаҳрошӯб» мебошанд.
Яке аз асарҳои тамсилии шоир «Баҳориёт» ба шумор меравад, ки бо номи «Ҳаӣвонотнома» ёд карда мешавад ва аз 184 баӣт таркиб ёфтааст. Қаӣд намудан зарур аст, ки «Баҳориёт» аз дигар асарҳои шоир ҳаҷман бузургтар аст. Ин асар дар шакли маснавӣ навишта нашудааст. Шакли асар аз нигоҳи қофиябандӣ ба қасида монандӣ дорад.
«Баҳориёт» ва ё «Ҳаӣвонотнома» дар масъалаҳои муаӣян намудани фикру андешаҳои сиёсию иҷтимоии шоир аҳамияти муҳим дорад. Он аз муқаддима, мазмуни асосӣ ва хотима иборат мебошад. Шоир баъд аз васфу ситоиши анъанавӣ мехоҳад, ки барои рафъ намудани хастагии мардум дар боби ҳаӣвонот сухан кунад. Баъд аз он таърифу тавсифи мушро огоз менамояд.
Қисми асосии «Баҳориёт», ки баъд аз муқаддима огоз мешавад, баҳси 18 ҳаӣвонро фаро мегирад. Баҳсу мунозираи гурба, car, гӯсфанд, гург, гов, шутур, сангпушт, хорпушт, рӯбоҳ, харгӯш, маӣмун, оҳу, паланг, фил, карк, шеър ва мӯрча бо ҳудтаърифкунии муш шурӯъ мегардад. Муш худро таърифу тавсиф мекунад:
А ҷдоди ман ба мири мушон такя мекунад,
Имрӯз дар баробари мая кист дар ҷаҳон?
Сипае, гурба расида омада, мушро танқидкунон мегӯяд:
Эӣ беадаб, ту шарм надорӣ зи руӣи ман?
Аҷдоди ту шуданд ҳама пеиш ман калон.
Сониян, худашро васфу ситоиш мекунад:
Бар ман бубину нек тамошо бикун маро,
Яъне зи шер сурати ман медиҳад нишон.
Азбаски дар миёнаи мардум мукаррамам,
Ҷоям ҳамегиа ҳаст ба паҳлӯи меҳмон.
Ҳамин тариқ, ҳаӣвонҳо паси ҳам омада, ҳамдигарро зери танқид гирифта, худро ситоиш менамоянд.
Шер бартарӣ ва зӯрии худро нисбат ба дигар ҳаӣвонот нишон дода, мегӯяд, ки ба назари ман дигар баҳодурон аз мӯрча ҳам камтаранд:
Бо ҳар кӣ бингарам, ҷигараш об мешавад,
Аз мур камтаранд ба чагимам баҳодурон.
Аз ин суханони шер мӯрча ба ғазаб меояд ва ба шер муроҷиат намуда, ӯро ба зӯри бозу ва тавоноии ҷаъмияти мӯрчагон тахдид менамояд:
Аз иттифоқи мурчагон гофилӣ магар,
В-арна чаро ҳақир шуморию нотавон?
Тифлони ширмасти ман имруз шергир,
Хешони нотавони мананд аз ту комрон..
Хулоса, баъд аз шунидани суханони мӯрча, ҳамаи ҳаӣвонот ба мӯрча таслим мешаванд:
Чун аз забони мурча ин ҳарф шуд баланд,
Таслим карда-карда расиданд ваҳшиён.
Дар достон дар образи мӯрча гурӯҳҳои меҳнатии ҷамъият, яъне деҳқон ва дар симои шер табақаҳои боло-ҳокимони замон тасвир ёфтаанд. Саӣидо иттифоқи мурчагон, яъне муттаҳидии синфи коргарро ба тариқи рамз тарғибу ташвиқ менамояд.

Мазмун ва мундариҷаи «Баҳориёт» — и Сайидои Насафӣ: 84 комментария

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