Мазмун ва мундариҷаи ғоявии Умари Хайём — Донишхона

Мазмун ва мундариҷаи ғоявии Умари Хайём

Мавзӯъ: МАЗМУН ВА МУНДАРИҶАИ ҒОЯВИИ РУБОИЁТИ УМАРИ ХАЙЁМ
Нақша:
Муқаддима
1. Ҳаёти мухтасари шоир
2. Мундариҷаи ғоявии рубоиёти Умари Хаӣём
Хулоса
Умари Хаӣём яке аз шоирони бузурги адабиёти классикӣ ба шумор меравад. Шоири тавоно ва ҳакими донишманд қамчун устоди рубоӣ маҳсуб мешавад. Хаӣёми Нишопурӣ, ки мутахаллис ба Хаӣём будааст, соли 1048 дар шаҳри Нишопури Эрон ба дунё омадааст. Шоир умри дарози пурбаракат дидааст. Ӯ соли 1131 дар зодгоҳи худ шаҳри Нишопур аз олам даргузашгааст. Мадфани ӯро мардуми Нишопур бо ҳурмату зҳтиром нигоҳубин мекардаанд. Вале хешовандони худи шоир дар Шодях барои Умар оромгоҳе сохтанд, ки ҷоми сарнагунро мемонад. Оромгоҳ бо рубоиҳои дилангези худи шоир ороиш дода шудааст.
Тавре маълум аст, аз шоир ба мо асарҳои зиёде боқӣ, мондааст:

«Наврӯзнома», «Мушкилотулҳисоб» «Зичи маликшоҳӣ» ва ғаӣра. Ба ғаӣр аз ин осор шоир рубоиҳои зиёде низ дорад ки, албатта, на ҳамаи онҳо то ба рӯзгори мо омада расидаанд. Мавзӯи рубоиёти шоир мухталиф мебошад. Масъалаҳои фалсафаи зиндагӣ, рози ҳастӣ, одобу ахлоқ, танқиди кирдорҳои ношоиста, танқиди зулму золимӣ мавзӯъҳои асосии рубоиёти шоир мебошанд. Умари Хаӣём ҳамчун шоири инсондӯст масъалаҳои ахлоқи ҳамидаи инсонро мавриди таҳлилу баррасӣ қарор дода, некиву накӯкорӣ, дӯстиву рафоқат ва садоқату вафодориро тарғибу ташвиқ менамояд. Шоир талқин менамояд, ки инсони комил бояд аз ҳар гуна зиштиҳо, бедодгариҳо, ҳирсу тамаъкориҳо иарҳезгор бошад. Қаноатпешагиро яке аз хусусиятҳои неки инсонӣ донисгааст: Қонеъ ба як устухон чу кар гас будан, Беҳ з-он ки туфаӣли хони ҳар кас будан. Бо нони ҷашш хеьи, ҳаққо, ки беҳ аст, К-олуда ба полудаи ҳар кас будан.
Умари Хаӣём ба амалдорону ҳокимони замони худ нафрат дошта, дар рубоиҳои худ аз рӯӣи эҳсоси инсондӯстӣ онҳоро мавриди сарзаниш қарор медихад:
Дар даҳр ҳар он ки ним ноне дорад, Е дархӯри хеш ошёне дорад, Не ходими касе бувад, на махдуми касе, Гу, шод бизӣ, ки хуш ҷаҳоне дорад.
Ғурури хештанпарастӣ, такаббуру ҳавобаландии ашхоси бехирадро мазаммат намуда, кӯтоҳназарии онҳоро дар ин ҷаҳони бекарон таъкид менамояд:
Онон, ки муҳити фазлу одоб шуданд, Дар кашфи улум иишъи асҳоб шуданд. Раҳ з-ин шаби торик набурданд бурун, Гуфтанд фасонаеву дар хоб шуданд.
Шоир ба масъалаҳои ҳастии олам ва ҳаракати ҳамешаши ӯ дахл намуда, таъкид менамояд, ки ҳамон гили кӯзагарон низ замене монанди мо будаанд. Ба кӯза ишора карда мегӯяд: Ин куза чу ман ошики зоре будааст, Дар банды сари зулфи нигоре будааст. Ин даста, ки дар гардами у мебинӣ, Дастест, ки бар гардапи ёре будааст.
Рубоиёти шоир, дар ҳақиқат, дилангез аст ва яке аз сабабҳои ба дилҳо роҳ ёфтани онқо ин аст, ки ҳамаи онҳо мазмуни ниҳоят баланд доранд, бисёр содаву равон ва аз ҷиҳати забони суфтаву саӣқал дода шудаанд, Масалан, рубоии зерин, ки бо забони оддӣ суруда шудааст:
Вақти саҳар аст, хез, эӣ мояи поз! Нармак-нармак бода хӯру чанг навоз, K-онҳо, ки ба ҷоянд, напоянд дароз, В-онҳо, ки шуданд, пас иамеоянд боз.
Умари Хаӣём ҳамчун шоири хақҷӯву адолатпеша аз номи аҳли илму адаб ва аз номи мардуми оддӣ арзу шикоят намуда, онҳоро чунин ҳушдор медихдд:
Эӣ чарх, зи гардиши ту хурсанд наям, Озод кунам, ки лощи банд наям. Гар маӣли ту бо бехираду ноаҳл аст, Ман низ чунон аҳлу хирадманд наям.
Умари Хаӣём таъкид бар он дорад, ки ҳар як инсон барои ҳаллу фасли кореву боре офарида шудааст. Аз ин оламе, ки барои мову шумо насиб гардидааст, бояд оқилонаву олимона истифода намуд, Зеро, ин лаҳзаҳо барои инсон муқаддасанд: Гар як нафасат зи зиндагонӣ гузарад, Магзор, ки цуз ба шодмонӣ гузарад,
Зинҳор, ки сармояи ин мулки ҷаҳон,
Умр аст, бад-он сон гузаронӣ, гузарад.
Дар ҳақиқат, мавзӯъҳои рубоиёти Умари Хаӣём ба тасвири шарту шароити таърихӣ, ҳаёти мардум, ноумедӣ аз замона бнхшида шудаанд.
Хусусияти дигари рубоиёти шоир он аст, ки дар онҳо иурсишу посух, шӯхиву мазоҳ, фарёду фиғон ва ҳамчунин истифодаи санъатҳои бадеӣ ба таври васеъ дида мешаванд, Рубоиёти Умари Хаӣём, дар воқеъ, шӯҳрати ҷаҳониро касб намуда, дар баӣни тамоми халқияту миллатҳои гуногуни олам мавриди истифода қарор гирифтаанд. Дар шӯҳрати ҷаҳонӣ иаӣдо кнрдани Умари Хаӣём хизмати мутарҷимони осори ӯ низ хеле бузург аст.

Мазмун ва мундариҷаи ғоявии Умари Хайём: 120 комментариев

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