Мавзӯъ ва мундариҷаи ғоявии «Баҳористон» — и Абдураҳмони Ҷомӣ — Донишхона

Мавзӯъ ва мундариҷаи ғоявии «Баҳористон» — и Абдураҳмони Ҷомӣ

Мавзӯъ: МАВЗУЪ ВА МУНДАРИҶАИ ҒОЯВИИ «БАҲОРИСТОН» — И АБДУРАҲМОНИ ҶОМӢ

Нақша:

Муқаддима

  1. Мухтасари ҳаёт ва фаъолияти эҷодии Абдурриҳмони Ҷомӣ
  2. Таҳлили гоявии «Баҳористон»-и Ҷомӣ
  3. Мавқеи панду ахлоқ дар «Баҳористон»

Хулоса

Нуриддин Абдурраҳмони Ҷомӣ якс аз шоирони забардасттарин ва маъруфтарини илму адаби лсрн XV маҳсуб мешавад. У соли 1414 дар вилояти Ҷоми Хуросон дар оилаи шахси донишманд ба дунё омадааст. У мсгӯид, ки устоди аввалинаш падари бузургвораш будааст, ки плм аз ӯ омӯхтааст. Ҷомӣ дар аӣёми наврасӣ тамоми илмҳоп замонаашро фаро мегирад. Ҷомӣ барои таҳсили илм ба марказқоп илмиву мадании ҳамонвақта сафар намуда, аз устодони бузурги замонаш сабақ мегирад. Кору фаъолияти эҷодии Абдуррақмони Ҷомӣ хеле барвақт огоз шудааст. Ҳ,анӯз аз овони хурдсолӣ обрӯ ва эътибори ӯ ба ҳамаи кишварҳои дуру наздик паҳн мешавад.

Мероси адабии шоир осори зиёдеро дар бар гирифтааст. Достони «Ҳафт авранг»-и Ҷомӣ аз бузургтарии осори бадеии ӯ ба ҳисоб меравад, ки дар паӣравии «Хамса»-ҳои Низомӣ ва Амир Хусрави Деҳлавӣ суруда шудааст. Абдурраҳмоии Ҷомӣ дар наср низ мақоми бузург доштааст. «Баҳористои» яке аз намунаҳои асари насрии ӯ буда, на танҳо дар адабиёти насрии асри XV, умуман, дар адабиёти классикии форсу тоҷик мақоми намоёнро ишгол менамояд. Аммо, «Баҳористон» бо мавзӯъҳо ва мазмуни худ дар эҷодиёти шоир ҷоӣи намоёнеро ишгол менамояд. Абдурраҳмони Ҷомӣ «Баҳористонро»-ро ҳамчун асари пандуахлоқӣ барои писараш Зиёуддин Юсуф таълиф намудааст. «Баҳористон» асари насрӣ буда, дар паӣравии «Гулистон»-и Саъдии Шерозӣ эҷод карда шудааст. Ин асар дорои ҳашт боб буда, ҳар боби он аз ҳикоятҳои хурд-хурди пандуахлоқӣ иборат мебошанд. Саргузашти орифон, панду ҳикматҳои бузургон, саргузашти подшоҳон, адлу инсоф ва ахлоқи неки онҳо мавзӯъҳои асосии достонро таипсил медиҳанд. Ҷомӣ сурати зоҳирии инсонро фиребанда меҳисобад. Тавре таъкид менамояд, бояд ба бо гини инсон аҳамият дод, на ба зоҳири ӯ:

Таъна бар мал мазан ба су рати зигит,

Аӣ тиҳӣ аз фазилату инсоф!

Тан бувад чун гилофу цон- шамшер

Кор шамшер мекунад, на гилоф!

Ҷомӣ дар «Баҳористонтьи худ зулму золимӣ ва беадолатиҳои ҳокимони замонро ба зери тозиёнаи танқид мегирад. Осошиу оромии ҷомеаро аз адлу инсофи шаӣхон медонад. Поӣдевори ҳар як давлат, ба гуфтаи Абдурраҳмони Ҷомӣ аз адл аст:

Чу гардад шоҳи олам адлпеша,

Шавад осоиши гаҳ-гаҳ ҳамеша.

Чу нолад бедиле пз синарешӣ,

Бувад як cap зи нуши зулмкеше. Халосиро зи даҳри печдарпеч,

Зи шоҳон адл мебояд, дигар ҳеч.

Ҷомӣ таъкид бар он дорад, ки шахси мансабдор бояд соҳиби илму дониш, маърифати баланд бошад. Яъне, аз назари ӯ, на мард бояд ба амал бузургу тавоно гардад, балки амал ба мард бузургу шариф гардад. Дар ҳар як амале, ки инсон анҷом медиҳад, адлу инсофу некиву накӯкорӣ лозим ва зарур аст:

 

Боядат мансаби баланд, бикуш,

То ба фазлу ҳунар кунӣ паӣванд.

На ба мансаб бувад баландии мард,

Балки мансаб шавад ба мард баланд.

Масъалаи дигаре, ки Ҷомӣ дар достони худ таҳлилу баррасӣ менамояд, ин ба зердастон меҳрубонӣ кардан аст. Зеро ҳар кӣ ба зердастони худ номеҳрубонӣ мекунад, бадиву дагалӣ менамояд, бо дасти зердастони худ нест мегардад:

Дило, гуш кун аз мал, ки ин нуктаи хуш,

Ки мондаст дар гутам аз нуктадонон.

Ки ҳар кас кашад теги номеҳрубонӣ,

Шавад кушта зи теги номеҳрубонон.

Хулоса, достони «Баҳористон» аҳамияти бузурги адабиву тарбиявӣ дорад, ки дар замири ҳар инсон эҳсосот ва ахлоқи некӣ инсониро зиёд мегардонад, Ҷомӣ бо ин гуна пакдномаҳои безаволи хеш дар баӣни мардуми машриқзамин шӯҳрати овозадоре касб намудааст. Осори ӯ ба забонҳои гуногун тарҷума шудаанд, ки ин боиси ифтихори миллати мо мебошад.

Мавзӯъ ва мундариҷаи ғоявии «Баҳористон» — и Абдураҳмони Ҷомӣ: 75 комментариев

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