Тоҷикистон дар солҳои 1945-1958 — Донишхона

Тоҷикистон дар солҳои 1945-1958

Халқи шӯравӣ дар ҷанг алаба карда буд ва акнун мехост, ки шаҳди (ширинии) ин алабаашро чашад. Барои ин лозим  буд, ки ҳаёти иқтисодӣ, сиёсӣ, фарҳангӣ ва умуман зиндагии ҷомеа  ба давраи осоишта гузаро-нида шавад. Барои ин гузариш чандин масъалаҳои  ҳалталаб ва дои  рӯзро, ки бештар манбаҳои  психологӣ ва иқтисодӣ доштанд, паси сар карда шавад. Ҳукумати ҷумҳурӣ ва ташкилотҳои ба нақшагирӣ лоиҳаи нақшаи панҷсолаи азнавбарқарор-куниро кор карда баромада ба муҳокимаи Шӯрои Олии ҶШС Тоҷикистон пешниҳод намуданд ва онро Шӯрои Олӣ 8-уми августи соли 1946 муҳокима ва тасдиқ намуд. Аз сабабе ки аз руи тартиб  ин панҷсола дар мамлакат ва ҷумҳури чорумин панҷсола буд, онро панҷсолаи чорум ва аз руи мақсаду моҳияташ панҷсолаи азнавбарқарор-кунӣ номиданд ва бо ҳамин номи панҷсолаи азнавбар-қароркуни ба таърихи шӯравӣ дохил гардида буд. Нақшаи панҷсолаи чорум дар назар дошт, ки дар ин муддат корҳои зерин гузаронида шавад:

  • реабилитатсияи ҷанговарон ва мо ҷомеа умуман гузаронидан буданд.
  • ба кор андохтани корхонаҳои саноатии дар солҳои ҷанг аз кор бозмонда, тоза кардану ба кор андохтани каналу ҷуйборҳои бо илу лойиқа пуршуда, заминҳои аз кишт бозмондаро барқарор кардан ва ба давраи пешазҷангӣ расондан:
  • дар рафти азнавбакорандозӣ ва барқароркуни инчунин ба тачҳизонидану  азнавсозӣ аҳмият додан;
  • истеҳсоли хоҷагии халқ ва маишати меҳнаткашонро то дараҷаи пешазҷангӣ расонда аз он ҳам баланд бардошта буданд.

Барои иҷрои ин вазифаю амалҳо 1,2 млрд сум ҷудо  ва мӯҳлаташ 5 сол муқаррар  шуда буд.

Ба ҷумлаи корхонаҳои нав сохтаву ба кор андохташудаи солҳои 1946-1950 ин пойгоҳи барқии Варзоби Поён, кони нави ангишт дар Исфара, заводи рехтагарӣ- механикии Конибодом, ба кор андохтани комбинати шпати Такоб заводҳои пахтаи Пролетар, Куйбышев (Хоҷамастон), Уялӣ, заводи маҳсулоти шир-потреб ва фабрикаҳои дӯзандангӣ- трикотажӣ, комби-нати ҷӯбу тахта, раванкашӣ, майкашӣ (спирт) (ҳама дар Душанбе) ба ҳисоб мерафтанд.

Вазифаҳои асосии ҳалталаби хоҷагии қишлоқи ҷумҳурӣ дар солҳои 1946-1950 ин бо техникаи хоҷагии қишлоқ (асосан бо тракторҳою тухмипошкаҳо ва техникаи алладарраву аллакуб) таьмин намудани соҳа, тоза кардани каналу ҷуйборҳо ва ҳавасманд  гардондани деҳқонҳою хоҷагиҳо буданд. Иҷрои ин масьалаҳо ҳам харҷ ва ҳам ташки-лотчигиро тақозо мекард. Ҳукумати ҷумҳурӣ барқарор-кунии хоҷагии қишлоқро аз пахтакорӣ ооз намуд. Чунки ин соҳаи асосӣ ва даромаднок буда, инчунин маҳсулоти он маҳсулоти стратегӣ- умуми давлатӣ ҳам буд.

Панҷсолаи 5-ум панҷсолаи тараққиёти хоҷагии халқ барои солҳои 1951-1955 ном дошта, лоиҳаи онро дар тамоми давраи солҳои 1951-1952 таҳия ва таҳриру ислоҳу иловаҳо ворид сохта будаанд, ки ҳама соҳаҳои ҳаёти сиёсӣ, иқтисодӣ, ва маданиро дарбар мегирифт ва онро дар анҷуманҳои YIII ҲК Тоҷикистон ва XIX ҲКУ(б) муҳокима ва қабул карда будаанд. Директиваҳои панҷсола дар назар дошт, ки дар ҳаёти сиёсии мамлакат ва ҷумҳурӣ дар сиёсати миллӣ таиротҳои куллӣ ба амал бароварда мешаванд. Дар ҳаёти ҳизбӣ ва давлатӣ низ демократи-кунонии ҳаёти ҷамъиятӣ дар назар дошта шуда буд. Дар ҳаёти иқтисодӣ бошад, директиваҳои панҷсо-лаҳо инкишофи ҳама соҳаҳои саноат: маъдани кӯҳӣ, нефт, саноати масолеҳи бинокорӣ, бофандагӣ, пахтато-закунӣ, хӯроквориро дар назар дошт. Лоиҳаи нақшаи панҷсолаи 6-умро анҷумани Х ҲК Тоҷикистон (январи 1956) ва ХХ ҲКИШ (феврали 1956) муҳокима ва пешниҳод карда буданд. Вазифаҳои асосии ин панҷсола барои Тоҷикистон ин инкишофи минбаъдан хоҷагии халқ ва маданияту маишати халқ буда чунин маънидод карда шуда буданд:

-ҳаҷми умумии маҳсулоти саноатиро 1,4 баробар аз ҷум-ла истеҳсоли барқро 4-баробар, саноати тобеи ҷумҳури 1,7 баробар, истеҳсоли семент 1,3 баробар зиёд карда ме-шавад. Баробари ин зиёд кардани истеҳсоли металлҳои ранга, ангишт, нефт, истеҳсоли маҳсулоти саноати сабук ва хӯроквориро дар назар дошта шуда буд. Дар солҳои 1956-1958 дар ҷумҳурӣ 30 корхонаи саноатӣ аз ҷумла ПБО “Дӯстии халқҳо” (1956) ва “Сарбанд” (1958) заводи сементи Душанбе, заводҳои равану маска дар Конибодому Қуронтеппа, фабрикаи пойафзоли Хуҷанд, фабрикаи рангумолкунии комби-нати абрешими Хуҷанд, фабрикаи мебелбарории Душанбе ба кор андохта шуда буданд.

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