Лашкаркашиҳои араб ва муборизаи мардуми Хуросону Варорӯд бар зидди онҳо — Донишхона

Лашкаркашиҳои араб ва муборизаи мардуми Хуросону Варорӯд бар зидди онҳо

Муҳаммад аз дину оинҳо ва фардҳои пешин образҳо ва таълимоти муҳимтаринро қабул намуданд, ва тамоми чизеро ки аҳолии Арабистон: чӣ яҳудиёну насрониён ва чӣ бутпарастон дар бораи ин дунёву охират медонистанд, мутобиқ ба ҳаёти реалии ҷамъияти Арабистон ба тариқи нав шарҳ дода тавонист. Арабҳо бо ақоиди яккахудоӣ, набувватӣ, эмомат, биҳишт, дузах, қазо, ҷазо, рӯза, намоз, андоз, давлат, хизмат дар шархҳои яхудӣ, насронӣ, зардуштӣ ва бутпарастиву худоҳои алоҳидаи арабӣ шинос буданд. Вале дар амали ҳеҷ кадоми онҳо ҳаёти реалии зисту зиндагии арабҳоро дарёфтан номумкин буд. Масалан, дар талқини яккахудоӣ ҳадди гуноҳ ва ҷазо, намоз ва рӯза, андоз ва давлатдорӣ зиддияту мухолифатҳои зиёде вуҷуд доштанд. Ин зиддиятҳо на фақат ба ҳаёти онрӯзаи Арабистон, балки ба охирати онҳо ҳам таъсири бад мерасонд. Зеро он ҷамъияти Арабистонро дар ин дуньё пароканда ва дар ҷангу ҷидол ва дар киёмат бошад, дар азоби ҷаҳанам медид ва онро аз ин ҷаҳолат раҳонидан омили ҳатмӣ мешуморид. Ҷамъияти Арабистонро барои аз ин ҷаҳолат раҳонидан афкори нави ҷамъиятӣ-махсусан маънавиёти нав, шарҳи нави ҳастии заминӣ ва қиёмат зарур буд. Танҳо дини наву паёмбари нав ҳамаи ин корҳоро ба мақсади муттаҳид намудани Арабистон дину оинҳо ва фардҳои пешин образҳо ва таълимоти муҳимтаринро қабул намуданд, ва тамоми чизеро ки аҳолии Арабистон: чӣ яҳудиёну насрониён ва чӣ бутпарастон дар бораи ин дунёву охират медонистанд, мутобиқ ба ҳаёти реалии ҷамъияти Арабистон ба тариқи нав шарҳ дода тавонист. Арабҳо бо ақоиди яккахудоӣ, набувватӣ, эмомат, биҳишт, дузах, қазо, ҷазо, рӯза, намоз, андоз, давлат, хизмат дар шархҳои яхудӣ, насронӣ, зардуштӣ ва бутпарастиву худоҳои алоҳидаи арабӣ шинос буданд. Вале дар амали ҳеҷ кадоми онҳо ҳаёти реалии зисту зиндагии арабҳоро дарёфтан номумкин буд. Масалан, дар талқини яккахудоӣ ҳадди гуноҳ ва ҷазо, намоз ва рӯза, андоз ва давлатдорӣ зиддияту мухолифатҳои зиёде вуҷуд доштанд. Ин зиддиятҳо на фақат ба ҳаёти онрӯзаи Арабистон, балки ба охирати онҳо ҳам таъсири бад мерасонд. Зеро он ҷамъияти Арабистонро дар ин дуньё пароканда ва дар ҷангу ҷидол ва дар киёмат бошад, дар азоби ҷаҳанам медид ва онро аз ин ҷаҳолат раҳонидан омили ҳатмӣ мешуморид. Ҷамъияти Арабистонро барои аз ин ҷаҳолат раҳонидан афкори нави ҷамъиятӣ-махсусан маънавиёти нав, шарҳи нави ҳастии заминӣ ва қиёмат зарур буд. Танҳо дини наву паёмбари нав ҳамаи ин корҳоро ба мақсади муттаҳид намудани Арабистон ва аз истибдоди Руму Эрон раҳонидани он ва барҳам додани парокандагии дохилӣ ба субут расонида метавонист. Зарурати ин таъинот дар анъанаҳои яҳудия хеле амиқ дарҷ ёфта, ҳатто номи паёмбари нав-Аҳмад низ зикр шуда буд. Он исломе, ки зуҳуроташ дар набуватии Иброҳим (а) таҷаллӣ ёфта буд, Муҳаммад онро хуб пазируфт, ҳамаи он хислату кудратҳо: яккахудоӣ, қудрату тавоноии офарандаи оламу одам, хайру шарр, ҷазову қазо ва ҳоказо ба гайр аз сарнавишти улвӣ ва инчунин дунявӣ ба Худованд матлуб ва муносиб дониста мешуданд. Дар натиҷа тавассути фаъолияти ҷамъиятиву сиёсии Муҳаммад дар Арабистон давлати феодалӣ-теократие ба вуҷуд омад, ки онро Хилофати Араб номиданд. Асоси ҷамоавии Хилофати Арабро, ҷамъоаи мусалмонон-умма ташкил медод. Пойтахти Хилофати Араб шаҳри Макка ва Муҳаммад сардори умма-халифат эътироф, гардиданд. То ҳол сохтори сиёсии халифатгарӣ пурра ба вуҷуд наомада буд. Баъди вафоти Муҳаммад (632) давраи ҳукмронии хулафои Рошиддин (632-661) ооз гардид, ки маҳз дар ин давра сиёсати забткоронаи хилофат ба тавсиб мерасад ва сохтори сиёсии давлатдории араб, мутобиқ ба минтақаҳои забткардаи онҳо ташаккул ёфта, умма-хилофат ба Хилофати Араб табдил меёбад. Хилофати Араб дар давраи хулафои Рошиддин ҳам давлати теократии мусалмонӣ-монархистӣ боқи монд. Чунин шакли давлатдорӣ хоси бисёр халқҳои Шарқу арб буданд. Сардори чунин давлатҳо пешвои дин (дар мисоли Хилофати Араб-халифа) буда, он «сояи» худо дар замин ва рухонии поку муқаддас ҳисобида мешуд. Қонунҳои асосии давлат каломи муқаддас-Қуръон,  шариат, ҳадис, суннат ва иродаву хости роҳбарони дин шуморида мешуданд. Хилофат баъди ба сари ҳокимият омадани Уммавиён (661-750), гарчанд онҳо унвони эмоматиро нигоҳ дошта бошанд ҳам ба давлати дунявӣ тадбил ёфт. Хилофат ҳамчун роҳбари (пешвои) дин дар арабу мусалмон то соли 1924 боқӣ монда буд, вале ҳамчун сохтори сиёсӣ баъди аз тарафи муулҳо қатл карда шудани халифа Муътасим (1258) аз байн рафт.

Умуман дар таърихнигории ҷаҳонӣ ва махсусан Шарқ, давраи истилои араб ҳамчун давраи ба феодализм гузаштани кишварҳои тобеъ дониста шудааст, ки он беасос нест. Он муносибатҳои ҷамъиятие, ки дар Моварроуннаҳр арзи ҳастӣ дошт, ҳамчун давраи гузариш ба муносибатҳои феодалӣ дониста мешуданд. Истилои араб суръати инкишофи муносибатҳоро тезонида, дар охир, онро ба як сохтори классикии феодалӣ табдил дода тавонист. Мо, бо назардошти анъанаҳои миллӣ онро пурра хоҳем ҳис кард.

Хилофати Араб то соли 651 тамоми Эрон ва қисми арбии Афонистони қунуниро забт намуд. Таблиотчиёни дини нав ба соҳили рости дарёи Панҷ ҳам расиданд. То ин дам тамоми шиорҳои забткоронаи араб: мусалмонҳо баробаранд, мусалмонҳо  бародаранд ва мусалмонҳо аз андози сарикасӣ озод мебошанд, амалан санҷида шуда буданд ва онҳо самараи хуб медоданд. Сарфи назар аз ин, ба арабҳо муяссар нагардид, ки тамоми минтақаҳои тоҷик-нишинро яку якбора ва бо як усул забт намоянд. Ҳудудҳои тоҷикнишин дар асл дар чор давра: солҳои 643-651 — ҳудудҳои тоҷикнишини Хуросон ва шимолии Афонистон; солҳои 681-705 соҳилҳои рости дарёи Панҷу Ому дар атрофи Тирмиз; солҳои 705-715 водиҳои Қашқадарьё, Сурхон ва Поёноби Зарафшон — аз Бухоро то Панҷакент ва Фарона, Чоч то Исфиҷоб; солҳои 715-735 ва минбаъд водиҳои Қубодиён, Вахш, Ҳисор, Хатлон, Каррон (Дарвоз) ва Рашт (Қаротегин) забт карда шуданд. Ҳудуди Тоҷикистони кунунӣ асосан дар давраи охири солҳои 651-737 забт гардидааст, ки рафти он мухтасараш чунин аст. Солҳои 651-737 қӯшуни араб бо сардории волиҳо ва сарлашкарони араб Убайдуллоҳ ибни Зиёд, Саид ибни Усмон ва Салм ибни Зиёд дар Чаону Хатлон, Суду Бухоро ҳатто Фарона забткорӣ карда бошанд, ҳам вале Мовароуннаҳрро тобеъ карда натаво-нистанд. Лекин ба ҷудондозии ҳокимони маҳаллӣ муваффақ шуданд. Ҳудуди Тоҷикистони кунунӣ то аз тарафи арабҳо забт шуданаш ба ҳайати мулкҳо — давлатҳои мустақили Тахористон (водиҳои Бешкент, Қубодиён ва шояд Вахш), Чаониён (водии Ҳисор), Рашт (Қаротегин), Каррон (Дарвоз), Суд (Панҷакент, шоял Айнӣ ҳам) Истаравшан (Уротеппа, Шаҳристон, ончӣ, шояд Айнӣ) ва Фарона (Хуҷанд, Исфара), Вахон (Хору, Рушон, Ишкошим) дохил мешуд. Ва ҳар кадоми онҳо дар давраҳои гуногун чандин бор забт шудаанд. Масалан, дар солҳои 667, 673, 676, 689, 704, 706, 707, 708, 709, 710 дар водиҳои Бешкенту Қубодиён ва Вахш забткориҳо содир шуд. То соли 717 ҳар даъфа пас аз баромада рафтани арабҳо, онҳо мустақилияти худро эълон мекарданд. Соли 717 бори охир Аҳорун, Шумон, Қубодиён аз тарафи Сулаймон забт ва ба хилофати Бадод ҳамроҳ гардид. Соли 712 арабҳо Панҷакент ва қисми арбии Айниро бо сардории Қутайба ибни Мусалим, соли 721 бошад, бо сардории Сулаймон забт намуданд. Арабҳо ба Хуҷанд ҳам чандин бор: ба сардории Салм ибни Зиёд (682 ё 683) Қутайба ибни Муслим (713 ё 715) ҳуҷум карданд. Вале танҳо дар соли 722 Хуҷандро пурра забт намуданд. Арабҳо ба Истаравшан дар солҳои 712 ё 722 ҳуҷум оварда бошанд ҳам, вале исломро танҳо дар соли 822 ҷорӣ карда тавонистанд. Водии Кулоб ҳам, дар рафти солҳои 667, 674, 680, 705, 708, 710, 717, 727 ва 737 ба ҳуҷуми арабҳо дучор шудааст. Ба ин мулк бо сардории сарлашкарони араб Убайдуллоҳ, Саид, Салм, Қутайба, Сулаймон, Асад, Язид ва айра борҳо ҳуҷум карда шудааст. Соли 737 Хатлон бо пойтахташ Ҳулбук аз тарафи Асад забт гашт.

Сохтори давлатӣ. Хилофати Бадод яке аз давлатҳои классикии феодалии исломии ҷаҳони арабу Шарқ ба ҳисоб мерафт. Ва дар тӯли тамаддуни давлатдории исломӣ барои бисёр минтақаҳои интишори ислом намунаи давлатдорӣ ҳам хизмат кардааст. Аз тарафи дигар, Хилофати Бадод дар ташаккулёбии сохтори сиёсию иқтисодӣ ва иҷтимоию маданӣ аз таҷрибаи ҷаҳониён-бахусус аҷамиён-Сосониён хуб истифода бурдааст. Сохтори сиёсии Хилофати Бадодро назарияи шариати эмомату хилофат ташкил медоданд. Ин сиёсат ҳокимияти дуняви (хилофат) ва диниро (эмоматро)  дар дасти як кас ҷамъ оварда ҳокимияти мутлақаи феодалию исломиро бунёдгузорӣ кардааст.

Лашкаркашиҳои араб ва муборизаи мардуми Хуросону Варорӯд бар зидди онҳо: 118 комментариев

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