Нафасгирии микроорганизмҳо — Донишхона

Нафасгирии микроорганизмҳо

Накша:
1. Раванди нафаскашии микрорганизмхо
2.Оксидшавииравганхо бо микроорганизмхо
3.Оксидшавии кислотаи мурча
4. Оксидшавии спирт бо бактерияхо
Микрорганизмхо дар фаъолити хаётии худ энергияро дар раванди нафаскаши, ё ки туршшави сарф мекунанд. Дар ин вакт раванди мураккаби оксиду баркароршави ба амал меояд.Дар раванди оксидшави оксиген пайваст шуда, энергия сарф мешавадва электронхо гум мешаванд. Мисол зангзании (закиси) охан ба оксиди охан мубаддал мешавад:
Fe3+  —- Fe2+`   ё электрон гум мешавад.
Дар раванди нафасгири ва туршшави фаъолнокии оксиген ва гидроген ба амал меояд, ки дар он роли оксепторхо калон мебошад. Дар раванди нафаскаши ва туршшави энергияи АДФ хосил ва сарф мешавад. Организмхои аэроби энергияро дар раванди нафасгири ва организмхои анаэроби дар раванди туршшави хосил ва  сарф мекунанд.
АДФ – аденозин дифосфат
АТФ – аденозитри фосфат
Шиддатнокии нафасгири дар бактерия хо ва замбуругхо хеле калон мебошад. Дар нафасгири роли калонро органоидхои хучайра мебозаннд. Яке аз органоиди хучайра митохондрия мебошад.Андозаи митохондрия дар бактерияхо аз 0,5 то 1 ммк мебошад .Таркиби митохондрияро 30-40 % сафеда , 25-38 % липидхо ташкил мекунанд .Дар митохондрияхо аз 1 то 6 % РНК дида мешавад.
Митохондрия манбаи энергия буда, дар мубодилаи моддахо иштирок мекунад. Гайр аз ин митохондрия дар синтези пентидхо , чаббидани об ва намакхои минерали иштирок мекунад. Соли 1956 олими немис Миллер хосилшавии митохондрияро дар занбуруги хамиртуруш бо воситаи микроскопии мархилаги мушохида кард.
Митохондрия дар мубодилаи энергия ва модда дар организм роли калон мебозад.
Оксидшавии равганхо бо иштироки микроорганизмхо.
Микроорганизмхои оксидкунандаи равган дар хок ферменти липазаро чудо мекунанд, ки он гидролизи равганро ба вучуд меорад:
C18  H28 O2 +26 O2 ——18 CO2+18 H2O
Бисёр микроорганизм хо актиномисетхо, замбуругхо, бактерияхои шири оксиди равганро ба вучуд меоранд.
Оксидшавии кислотаи мурча
Кислотаи мурчаро дар шароити аэроб ива анаэроби бактерияхои махсус оксид мекунанд.:
4HCOOH——3CO2+2H2O+ CH2
Кислотаи мурча
Оксидшасии спирт бо бактерияхо
CH3 CH2OH +O2 +CH3COOH + H2O + 479
Спирт                      сирко
CH03COOH+202ў2CO2+2H2O
Кислотаи сирко

Спирти этили барои бактерияхои сиркои сарчашмаи карбооксид нестанд. Ин сиркои хосилшуда дар саноат ахамияти калон дорад.

Саволхо барои такрор ва мустахкамкуни:

  1. Дар раванди нафаскаши дар микроорганизмхо фаъолнокии чи ба амал меояд?

А) фаъолнокии оксиген ва гидроген
Б) фаъолнокии гази карбон
В) фаъолнокии гази хлорид

  1. Организмхои аэроби неруро дар кадом раванд хосил вас арф мекунанд ?

А) дар раванди нафасгири
Б) дар раванди фотосинтез
В) дар раванди хемосинтез

  1. Организмхои анаэроби энергияро дар кадом раванд хосил ва сарф мекунанд?

А) раванди туршшави
Б) раванди фоторедуксия
В) раванди хемосинтез

  1. Кадом органоиди хучайра манбаи энергия аст ?

А) ситоплазма
Б) митохондрия
В) аппарати Голдҷи

  1. Дар митохондрия чанд фоиз РНК кислотаи нуклеини дида мешавад?

А) аз 1то 6 %
Б) аз 2-4 %
В) аз 3-5 %

Нафасгирии микроорганизмҳо: 92 комментария

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