Зертипи хелисерадорон ё нешчанголҳо — Донишхона

Зертипи хелисерадорон ё нешчанголҳо

1. Характеристикаи умумии зертипи хелисерадорон.
2. Классификатсия  ва экологияи хелисерадорон.
3.Характеристикаи умумии синфҳо ва қаторҳои
хелисерадорон.
4. Аҳамияти  хелисерадорон.
Ба ин зертип наздик 63 ҳазор намуд дохил мешавад. Аксарияти онҳо  ҳаёти рeизаминӣ мегузаронанд. Аввалин хелисерадорон ҳайвоноти обӣ буданд. Вале ҳоло бошад, аз хелисерадорони обӣ танҳо якчанд намуди шамшердумон боқӣ мондаасту халос.
Бадани хелисерадорон аз ду қисм: сарсина ва шикам иборат. Сарсина дар натиҷаи бо ҳам  якҷояшавии қисми сарӣ ва синагӣ ба вуҷуд омадааст. Қисми синаи онҳо бандҳои озод надорад (7 банди  сарию синагӣ як шуда рафтааст). Дар сарсина  6 ҷуфт конечностҳо ҳастанд.
Хусусиятҳои хоси хелисерадорон дар онҳо редуксия  шудани мeйлаб ё антенулла  мебошад. Xуфти  якуми конечности сарсина ба хелисера (нешчангол) табдил ёфтааст, ки  вазифаи майда кардани  ғизоро иҷро мекунад. Номи зертип аз ҳамин ҷо гирифта  шудааст. Хелисера чанголмонанд ё  нохунмонанд мешавад. Дар асоси хелисераи баъзе тортанакҳои ҳақиқӣ ғадуди заҳр ҷойгир шудааст. Xуфти дуюми конечности  сарсинаро педипалп  меноманд. Вазифааш ҳискунӣ ва доштани ғизо мебошад. Дар каждумон  педипалп тараққӣ карда, ба амбeрак мубаддал гаштааст. Педипалп гомологи мандибулаи харчангшаклон мебошад.
Дар канаҳо бошад, хелисера бо педипалп  як шуда, аппарати даҳони халандаю маккандаро (дар канаи саг), ё хояндаю маккандаро (дар канаи хориш, канаи амбор) ҳосил кардааст.
Боқомонда чор ҷуфт пойҳои  қисми сарсина вазифаи ҳаракатро иҷро мекунанд.
Дар қисми шикамии онҳо пойҳо дида намешавад: ё тамоман редуксия шудааст ё шакл дигар карда ба дигар  узвҳо табдил ёфтааст (ба шуш, ба озахи тортанӣ ва ғайра).
Зертипи хелисерадорон ба се синф (мувофиқи Догелҳ) тақсим мешавад:  шамшердумон, сипардорони азимҷусса ё харчангкаждумон ва тортанакшаклон.

Синфи шамшердумон
Шамшердумон ҳайвоноти  қадимаи мурдараванда (релликтивӣ) буда, дар эраи палеозой ва мезозой бисёр ва гуногун буданд. Онҳо бандпойҳои обӣ  буданд. Дар замони ҳозира танҳо 5 намуди  онҳо дар соҳилҳои Америкаи Шимолӣ ва Марказӣ ва ҷазираҳои Филлиппину Япон дучор  мешаванд. Онҳо дар ҷойҳои регноки соҳили баҳр  дар чуқуриҳои 4 – 10м ҳаёти зериобӣ мегузаронанд. Тарзи ҳаётгузарониашон  ба трилобитҳо  монанд. Тана аз ду қисм иборат: сарсина ва шикамӣ.
Қисми сарисина аз тарафи  тахтапушта бо сипар  пeшида шудааст, ки дар он як ҷуфт  чашми мураккаб ва як ҷуфт чашми содда  ҷойгир шудааст. Қисми шикамии  онҳо рафта – рафта борик шуда, ба шамшер  монанд гаштааст.
Қисми сарисина 6 ҷуфт пойҳо дорад. Xуфти якум – хелисера на он қадар калон, банднок. Педипалп  ва дигар  пойҳои роҳгардӣ ба ҳамдигар монанд буда, якшоха  ва  амбeршакл. Даҳони тарқишмонанд  дар тарафи шикамии сарсина ҷойгир шудааст. Пойҳои сарсина вазифаҳои гуногунро иҷро мекунанд: доштани ғизо, майда кардани он, тела додани он  ба даҳон ва ҳаракат.
Дар  қисми шикамии онҳо  6 – ҷуфт  пойҳои душоха  дида мешавад. Ин пойҳо  он қадар  тараққӣ накарда, сохти лавҳамонанд доранд. Xуфти якуми он нисбатан тараққӣ  карда,  дигар пойҳои қисми шикамиро аз қисми боло  пeшида, вазифаи  қабқоқро иҷро мекунад. Пойҳои  шикамӣ ғалсамаҳо дорад.
Сохти анатомии  шамшердумон бисёртар  ба тортанакшаклон монанд аст.
Тараққиёт  бо метаморфоз мегузарад. Аз тухм кирминаи трилобитмонанд  мебарояд, ки онро  кирминаи трилобитӣ  меноманд (1см).
Хулоса, шамшердумон бо трилобитҳо хешигӣ доранд, ба тортанакшаклон наздик мебошанд.
Синфи сипардорони  азимҷусса ё харчангкаждумон
Намояндагони  ин синф тамоман мурда рафта буда, 200 намуди онҳо аз давраи палеозой маълуманд. Бадани онҳо аз сарсина  ва шиками 12 – банда иборат аст. Хелисераашон ба амбeр  монанд аст.
Шикамашон дар охираш узви  сeзанмонанд дорад. Намояндагони  ин синфро аз такшониҳои давраи селур, кембрий ёфта  истодаанд. Онҳо  дарранда буда, дар таги баҳр  зиндагӣ мекарданд. Андозаи танаашон то  2 м  мерасид. Намояндаи ин синф – эириптерус ( Eғқypteқғs).
Сипардорони азимҷусса бо якчанд хусусиятҳои худ ба каждумони ҳозира  монанд. Аз ҳамин  сабаб пайдоиши тортанакшаклони ҳозираро  ба инҳо вобаста мекунанд. Мувофиқи маълумотҳои  ҳозира байни тортанакшаклон каждум аз ҳама  қадимтарин ба ҳисоб меравад, ки он аз  сипардорони  азимҷусса ба вуҷуд омада, ба шароити хушкӣ мутобиқ шудааст.
Синфи тортанакшаклон
Тортанакшаклон гурeҳи калонтарини хелисерадоронро ташкил карда, зиёда аз 63 ҳазор намуди онҳо маълум аст. Дар  Тоҷикистон зиёда аз 700 намуди онҳо ба рўйзат гирифта шудааст. Тортанакшаклон дар байни бандпойҳо аввалин гурўҳе мебошанд, ки тахминан 400 млн сол пеш аз об ба хушкӣ баромада, ба шароитҳои гуногуни муҳити зист мутобиқ шудаанд. Онҳо дар саҳроҳо, xангалзорҳо,  боғу майдонҳо, саройҳо, хонаҳои истиқоматӣ ва ғайраҳо дучор  мешаванд. Дар байни онҳо намудҳои муфтхeри ҳайвонот ва растанӣ  низ дида мешавад.
Сохти морфологӣ.  Бадни онҳо монанди дигар хелисерадорон  аз ду қисм: сарсина ва шикам иборат аст. Дар қисми сарсина 6 xуфт пойҳо дида мешавад. Дар қисми шикамӣ пойҳои ҳақиқӣ нест (бо ин аз шамшердумон фарқ мекунанд).
Мeйлаб ё антенуллаҳо нест. Чашм содда. Xуфти якуми пойҳои сарсина дар пеши даҳон xойгир шуда, хелисера (нешчангол) номида мешавад. Холисера гомологи антеннаи дуюми харчангшаклон буда, чанголмонанд ё нохунмонанд ва  аъзонок мебошад. Xуфти дуюми пойҳои  сарсина педипалп мебошад. Педипалп дар каждумони  қалбакӣ амбeршакл шуда, вазифаи доштани ғизоро иxро мекунад. Дар канаҳо хелисера ва педипалп аппарати хояндаю  макандаро  ё халандаю макандаро ҳосил мекунад.
ҳамаи тортанакшаклон ғизои суюқ мехeранд, бинобар он дар инҳо қисми пеши системаи ҳозима аппарати макандаро ҳосил кардааст.
Намудҳои гуногуни тортанакшаклон аз ҳамдигар пеш аз ҳама  бо дараxаи сегментатсияи тана (асосан дар қисми шикамӣ) фарқ мекунанд. Аз ҳама бандҳои бисёр дар қисми шикамии каждумон дида мешавад. Дар қисми шикамии каждумон 12 банд дида мешавад, ки 6 – тои онҳо паҳн буда, қисми пеши  шиками (мезосома)- ро ва 6 – тои он нисбатан борик буда, қисми оқиби шиками (метасома)- ро ҳосил мекунад. Банднокшавии танаи каждумон ба сипарнокони азимxусса монанд мебошад. Дар дигар тортанакшаклон бандҳои қисми  оқиби шикамӣ торафт кам мешавад.
Умуман эволютсияи  тортанакшаклон  ба камшавии бандҳои  шикамӣ ё тамоман як шудани онҳо меорад. Дар канаҳо банднокшавии тана тамоман дида намешавад,  Қисми  шикамӣ дар онҳо бо қисми сарсина як шуда рафтааст.
Қисми шикамии тортанакшаклони ҳақиқӣ бандҳои  озод надоранд.  Вале он аз қисми  сарсина бо xои борикшудаи танагӣ xудо шуда меистад.
Пeшиши пeстии тортанакшаклон намиро қариб ки намегузаронад. Дар тортанакшаклон  пeст якчанд ғадудҳоро ҳосил кардааст: ғадудҳои заҳрӣ, тортанӣ, бeйбароранда (дар алафдаравакҳо) ва ҳоказо. Ғадудҳои заҳрӣ дар каждумон, тортанакҳо, баъзе  каждумони қалбакӣ ва дар баъзе канаҳо дида мешавад. Дар каждумон қисми шикамӣ бо неш ба охир мерасад, ки  дар асоси он  ғадуди заҳрӣ xойгир шудааст. Каждум заҳри худро барои нобуд кардани тeъмаи худ истифода мебарад. Дар тортанакҳо ғадуди заҳрӣ дар асоси хелисераҳо ва роҳи он ба чанголи хелисера кушода мешавад. Ғадуди тортанӣ дар тортанакҳо дида мешавад.
Системаи ҳозима. Аксар тортанакшаклон дарранда, баъзеи онҳо масалан, канаҳо муфтхeри ҳайвонот  ва растаниҳо мебошанд. Сохти аппарати ҳозима ҳам ба ин мутобиқ шудааст. Системаи ҳозима аз рeдаи пеш, миёна ва оқиб иборат аст. Рeдаи пеш  барои макидани суюқии ковокӣ қобилиятнок шудааст. Ба ҳалқ xараёни ғадуди обидаҳонxудокунӣ кушода мешавад. Секрете, ки e ва xигар xудо мекунад, сафедаро ҳал мекунад. Тортанак пeстро сeрох карда,  ба xои сeрохшуда оби даҳон xудо мекунад, дар натиxа бофтаҳои  тeъма  ҳал шуда, суюқиро макидан мегирад.
Системаи нафаскашӣ. Ба муносибати  дар хушкӣ зиндагӣ кардан  тортанакшаклон  барои аз О2 – и атмосферӣ нафас гирифтан қобилиятнок шудаанд. Узви нафаскашӣ шуш ва трахея мебошад. Дар баъзеашон танҳо шуш (каждумон, тортанакҳои чаҳоршушдор), дар баъзеашон танҳо  трахея (каждумони қалбакӣ, фалангаҳо, бедадаравакҳо, баъзе канаҳо), дар баъзеашон ҳам шуш  ва ҳам трахея мебошад (дар аксарият тортанакҳо). Шуш узви халтамонанд буда, дар тарафи поёнии бандҳои шикамӣ  xойгир шудааст. Дар тарафи  шикамӣ 4 xуфт сeрохии тарқишмонанд – стигма дида мешавад, ки он ба шуш мебарад. Дар баъзе тортанакҳо 2 – то шуш, дар баъзеашон чаҳор шуш (тортанакҳои чаҳоршушдор) дида мешавад. Шуши тортанакшаклон шаклдигаркардаи пойҳои ғалсамагии  тортанакшаклони қадимаи   обӣ мебошанд. Баъзе тортанакшаклони  майда (баъзе канаҳо) бо тамоми сатҳи бадан  нафас мегиранд.
Системаи  хунгард – кушод. Дил дарозрeя, найчашакл буда, аз он ба пешу оқиб аортаҳо мебарояд, дар тортанакҳо танҳо  ба пеш.  Шоханокшавии  артерияҳо хеле гуногун буда,  он ба сохти узви нафаскашӣ вобаста мебошад. Дар каждумон, ки шуш дар як xои муайян  xойгир шудааст ва дар тортанакҳое, ки  трахеяи онҳо кам шоханок шудааст, системаи  хунгард нағз тараққӣ кардааст. Дар фалангаҳо, бедадаравакҳо системаи хунгард суст тараққӣ кардааст. Сабаб он аст, ки дар вақти хеле шоханок шудани  трахея  ивазшавии  газ  бевосита байни трахея ва бофта  мегузарад ва  хун дар ин вақт  қариб ки  дар  кашонидани газ иштирок намекунад. Гемолимфаи  тортанакшаклон пигменти нафаскашӣ – гемосианин дорад.
Узви ихроҷ   найчаҳои малпигиевӣ мебошад. Найчаҳои малпигиевӣ 1 ё 2 xуфт  найчаҳои  борики шоханокшуда буда, дар қисми  шикамӣ xойгир шудааст. Найчаҳои малпигиевӣ  пайдоиши эндодермалӣ дошта, аз ҳисоби рeдаи  миёна ҳосил шудааст. Маҳсули асосии xудокунӣ гуанин – дар шакли кристалл берун карда мешавад. Бинобар он оби организм кам нест мешавад ва ин барои ҳайвоноти ба хушкӣ баромада хеле мусоид мебошад.
    Системаи асаб ва узвҳои ҳис. Системаи асаб ба дигар бандпойҳо монанд. Вале дар тортанакшаклон консентратсияи гиреҳҳои асаб хос аст. Аз ҳама гиреҳҳои асаби бисёр дар каждумон дида мешавад (гиреҳи болои ҳалқӣ, коннективҳои наздиҳалқӣ ва 7 гиреҳи асабии шикамӣ). Дар тортанакҳо бошад, ҳамаи гиреҳҳои занxири асабии шикамӣ як шуда, гиреҳи ягонаи  поёниҳалқиро ҳосил  кардааст. Дар канаҳо  гиреҳи поёниҳалқӣ бо мағзи сар як шуда рафтааст. Бинобар дар  хелисерадорон редуксия шудани  мeйлаб  дар инҳо  қисми мобайнии мағзи сар – дейтосеребрум  тараққӣ накардааст.
Тортанакшаклон таъсиротҳои  механикӣ ва  бeйро бо мeякчаҳое, ки дар пойҳо, хусусан дар  педипалп ҳаст, ҳис мекунанд. Чашми онҳо  содда (фасеткагӣ не), одатан якчанд xуфт мешавад. Дар тортанакҳо 8 – то чашм ҳаст, ки дар сар дар ду қатор xойгир шудааст. Дар каждум 1 xуфт чашми калон ва 2 – 5 xуфт чашмҳои  паҳлeгӣ ҳаст. Тортанакҳо масофаи 20 – 30см  каждумон бошанд, 2 – 3 см – ро мебинанд.
  Узви xинсӣ ва тараққиёт. Тортанакшаклон xудоxинса. Ғадудҳои ҷинсӣ дар қӣсми шикамӣ ҷойгир шуда, ҷуфт мебошанд. Диморфизми xинсӣ нағз намудор аст. Масалан, дар  тортанакҳо наринаҳо нисбат  ба модинаҳо хеле хурд ва педипалпи онҳо ба  узви  муштарак табдил ёфтааст.
Аксар тортанакшаклон бо роҳи тухмгузорӣ афзоиш мекунанд. Фақат каждумон, каждумони қалбакӣ ва баъзе канаҳо зиндазо мебошанд. Каждум якчанд  вақт бачаҳояшро дар пушташ бардошта мегардад.
Қариб ки дар  ҳамаи тортанакшаклон  тараққиёт рост, фақат  дар канаҳо метаморфоз дида мешавад.
       Синфи тортанакшаклон ба якчанд қаторҳо тақсим мешавад: қатори каждумон, фалангаҳо ё салпугҳо, каждумони қалбакӣ, бедадаравакҳо, тортанакшаклон ва ғ.
Қатори каждумон – Scoқpiones  наздик 600 намуд дорад.  Дар ИДМ 15 намуд, дар Тоxикистон 10 намуд. Дар Тоҷикистон бештар каждуми зард вомехўрад.
Андозаи тана  миёна, аз ҳама  калонтарин каждум то 15 – 18 см. Масалан,  каждуми африкоӣ то 18 см мешавад. Умуман каждумони калон дар  тропика дучор мешаванд. Каждумон ҳайвони xойҳои гарм мебошад. Дар ИДМ дар Қрим, Кавказ, Осиёи Миёна дучор мешавад. Каждуми қримӣ то 40 мм мешавад. Дар Кавказ каждуми италянӣ дучор мешавад. Дар Закавказе ва Осиёи Миёна каждуми зард  – то 6,5см дучор мешавад.  Каждумонро хеле  бо осонӣ аз педипалпи амбeрмонанд, бандҳои борикшудаи қисми оқиби шикамӣ шинохтан мумкин аст.
Заҳри каждум барои нобуд кардани тeъмааш ва муҳофизат аз душман  истифода бурда мешавад. Xараёнгоҳи  як xуфт ғадуди заҳрӣ ба нeги неши каждум кушода мешавад. Заҳри каждумони майда барои одам хавфнок  нест, вале аз адабиётҳо ба мо чунин ҳодисаҳо  маълум, ки одам  аз заҳри каждуми калони  тропикӣ нобуд  шудааст, хусусан кeдакон. Вале заҳри он барои дигар тортанакшаклон, бисёрпойҳо, ҳашарот  марговар мебошад. Бо шуш нафас мегирад. Каждумон ҳайвони шабона. Онҳо рeзона дар зери  сангҳо, ковокии деворҳо руст мешаванд. Каждумон ҳавоноти фоиданок. Дарранда, зиндазо.

Қатори фалангаҳо ё солпугҳо

Тортанакшаклони  нисбатан калон, то 10см.  Дар қисми шикамӣ  10 банди озод доранд. Онҳоро  аз дигар тортанакшаклон бо хелисераашон ва педипалп фарқ мекунанд. Хелисера – амбeршакли бақувват, вале безаҳр. Педипалп ба пойҳои роҳгардӣ монанд, аз ин рe онҳоро ҳайвоноти даҳпой меноманд. Бо трахея нафас мегиранд.
Наздик 600 намуди фалангаҳо маълум, ки  асосан дар мамлакатҳои  гарм ва хушк паҳн  шудаанд. Дар ИДМ наздик 50 намуд дучор  мешавад, дар Тоxикистон 40 намуд, асосан дар Осиёи Миёна. ҳайвони шабона, дарранда. Гарчанде  бе заҳр бошад ҳам, xои xароҳатдидаро аз дохилшавии микробҳо эҳтиёт кардан лозим аст. Фаланга дар Қрим, Кавказ то 5см мешавад.

Қатори каждумони қалбакӣ
1300 намуд дорад. Тортанакшаклони  майда, аз 1-7мм то 12мм. Бо намуди берунӣ каме ба каждумон монанд (педипалпаш монанд), вале  бандҳои шикамӣ 11- то буда,  ҳамааш  паҳн аст  ва дар оқиби шикам  ғадуди заҳрӣ надорад. Инҳо фақат бо трахея нафас гирифта, шуш надоранд. Дар инҳо  ғадудҳои тортанӣ дида шуда, онҳо дар охири  хелисера кушода мешаванд. Тори онҳо барои сохтани лона истифода бурда мешавад.
Инҳо дар зери сангҳо, пeстлоқи дарахтон, хонаҳои истиқоматӣ, зиндагӣ карда  аз ҳашарот ғизо мекунад. Каждуми китоб   — Chelifeқ cancқoides дар xевонҳои  китоб, коллексия ва гербарияҳо дучор  шуда, ба китоб ва коллексия ягон хел зарар намерасонад, балки ҳашароти  зараррасони  коллексия  ва китобро қир карда, фоида  меорад.

Қатори бедадаравакҳо

     Бедадаравакҳоро  бо пойҳои  борики  дарозашон фарқ кардан мумкин аст. Каму беш ба тортанакҳо монанд бошанд ҳам, вале аз онҳо  фарқи калон дорад. Дар қисми шикамӣ 9 – 10 бандҳои озод дида мешавад. Байни сарсина ва шикам xои борикшуда дида намешавад. Хелисера хурди амбeршакл, ғадудҳои  заҳрӣ надорад. Бо трахея нафас мегирад. Барои бедадаравакҳо ҳодисаи аутотомия ё худмаъюбкунӣ хос аст. Пои нестшудаи онҳо  барқарор намешавад.
3200 намуди бедадаравакҳо маълум аст. Онҳо дар танаи дарахтон, дар зери баргҳо, саройҳо, дар девори хонаҳо дида мешаванд. Аз ҳашарот ғизо карда, дар кам кардани ҳашароти зараррасон нақши муҳим мебозанд. Бедадараваки муқаррарӣ  дар ИДМ дар ҳама xо дучор мешавад. Бадани он сиёҳчатоб буда, дарозиаш 9 мм, вале дарозии пойҳо то 54 мм.
Қатори тортанакҳо

      Қатори калонтарини синфи тортанакшаклон (зиёда аз 27 ҳазор намуд).Дар табиат эҳтимол ҷое нест, ки дар он ҷо ин ё он намуди тортанак вонахўрад. Тортанакҳо дар қисми  шикамӣ бандҳои  озод надоранд. Қисми шикамии онҳо яклухт буда, бо сарсина бо xои борикшуда, ки аз  ҳисоби банди 7 – ум ҳосил шудааст, пайваст шудааст. Хелисера – чанголмонанд. Педипалп  ҳассосамонанд, дар наринаҳо роли узви копулятивиро иxро мекунад. Узви нафасгирӣ – 1 – 2 xуфт шуш, дар аксар  тортанакҳо инчунин трахея низ дида мешавад. Пойҳои ду  банди шикамӣ ба озахи тортанӣ табдил ёфтааст.
Хусусияти  характернок дар  биологияи тортанакҳо — дар онҳо тараққӣ кардани ғадудҳои тортанӣ мебошад, ки баромадгоҳи он ба озахи  тортанӣ кушода мешавад. Шумораи ғадудҳои  тортанӣ то 1000 то, дар ковокии шикамӣ xойгир шудааст. Ғадудҳои тортанӣ моддаи моеъ xудо мекунад, ки  дар ҳаво  тез  хушк шуда, ба тори борик табдил меёбад. Тортанак торро ба мақсадҳои гуногун истифода мебарад: барои доштани тeъма, xои зист, пиллагузорӣ, пилласозӣ, муҳофизат аз душман, паҳншавӣ ва ғайраҳо. Модина пилларо нигаҳбонӣ мекунад ё бардошта мегардад.
Дар тортанакҳо диморфизми xинсӣ нағз намудор  аст. Бо сохти педипалп, одатан модина аз нарина калон. Пас аз бордоршавӣ модинаҳо  наринаҳои  майда  ва  сустро  мехeранд.
Қатори тортанакҳо ба ду зерқатор  xудо мешавад:
1. Тортанакҳои чаҳоршушдор.  Дар онҳо  фақат 2 xуфт шуш  мавxуд буда, трахея нест. Асосан  дар тропика  паҳн шудааст.
Вакил: тортанаки паррандахeри амрикоӣ ва тортанаки паррандахeри яванӣ (9см мешавад).
2. Тортанакҳои душушдор. Дар ин тортанакҳо  як xуфт шуш ва трахея дида мешавад. ҳамаи тортанакҳои  дар ИДМ дучоршаванда ба ин гурeҳ  дохил мешаванд: тортанаки салибдор, тортанаки хонагӣ, ғунда, тортанаки  нуқраранг, тарантул. Тарантул ё бӣ дар лонаҳои чуқур то 60 см зиндагӣ мекунад. Дар ИДМ аз xумла Осиёи Миёна  тарантули русӣ паҳн шудааст (3,5см), дар биёбон ва нимбиёбон паҳн шудааст. Бачаашон  то мустақил шудан ба пушти модар часпида меистанд.  Дар Тоҷикистон якчанд намуди бӣ, аз ҷумла бийи даштӣ вомехўрад, ки андозаи онҳо 3-5 см аст.
Аҳамияти тортанакҳо. ҳамаи тортанакҳо ҳайвоноти фоиданок мебошанд. Онҳо  аз ҳашароти зараррасон (пашшаҳо, хомeшакҳо) ғизо карда, фоида меоранд. Баъзе суханҳое, ки  мардум дар бораи тортанакҳо мегeянд, ягон асос надорад. Фақат як намуди тортанак —  ғунда хеле  хавфнок  мебошад. Дар Кавказ ва Осиёи Миёна дучор мешавад. Заҳри ғунда  марговар мебошад. Соли 1980 дар қишлоқи  Шашқади ноҳияи Панxакент аз  газидани ғунда 8 нафар нобуд шуда буданд. Баъд аҳолии қишлоқро ба дигар xой кeчониданд. Аломатҳои фарқкунандаи ғунда: тортанаки на  он  қадар калон (то 2 см), қисми шикамиаш сиёҳ  буда, ягон хел доғ надоранд. Ғундаҳои Увропаи Ҷанубӣ бошад барқади тахтапушт ва шикам доғҳои рангин доранд. Дар ғундаҳои Тоҷикистон, чунин доғҳо танҳо дар наслҳои ҷавон мавҷуд буда, дар наслҳои болиғ дида намешавад. Фақат дар баъзе мавридҳо дар таги шикам доғҳои рангин ба назар мерасад. Ғунда дар замин байни  сангҳо зиндагӣ мекунад (тенета сохта). Фақат заҳри ғунда ба гeсфандон таъсир намекунад. Зеро ки дар гeсфандон нисбат ба заҳри он  иммунитет  ҳосил шудааст. Бинобар он дар чарогоҳҳое, ки ғунда паҳн шудааст, гeсфандонро сар медиҳанд. Гeсфандон ғундаро зер карда, лонаи онро вайрон мекунанд. Ғунда аз xарангмор 15 маротиба заҳрноктар аст.
Қатори канаҳо
Зиёда аз 15 ҳазор  намуди канаҳо тасвир карда шудааст.То солҳои охир канаҳоро ба як қатор ҷудо мекарданд. Баъдтар маълум шуд, ки ин гурўҳ гуногунанд ва ҳоло онҳоро ба се қатори мустақил ҷудо карда мешавад: акариформӣ, канаҳои муфтхўр ва канаҳои бедадарав.
Канаҳо тортанакшаклони майда, аксар микроскопӣ буда, бо тарзҳои гуногун ҳаёт мегузаронанд. Аксар канаҳо муфтхeри растаниҳо  ва ҳайвонот мебошанд. Ба монанди тортанаккана. Садҳо намуди  канаҳо дар пату пари паррандагони гуногун ва мўйи ширхўрон муфтхeрӣ мекунанд.
Канаҳо инчунин паҳнкунандаи ба вуxудоварандагони касалиҳои гуногуни одам ва ҳайвонот мебошанд, ба монанди пироплазмози ҳайвоноти калони шохдор, туляремия, энсефалити хонагӣ, тифи баргардандаи хонагӣ ва ҳоказо.
Касалиҳое, ки бавуxудоварандагони онҳо бо  воситаи канаҳо ё дигар ҳайвонот паҳн карда мешаванд, касалиҳои трансмассивӣ номида мешавад. Академик Е.Н.Павловский ва шогирдони ў манбаи бемориҳои трансмассивиро дар мисоли паҳншавии канаи энсефалит (касалии варами майнаро ба вуҷуд меорад) кор карда баромада, роҳҳои мубориза бо онро нишон додаанд. Дар асоси ин назария манбаи паҳншавии ин беморӣ ба ареали намудҳои канаҳои хунмак (паҳнкунанда) ва намуди ҳайвоноти ёбоӣ (манбаи сирояткунӣ) вобаста мебошад.
Канаҳо  инчунин ба хоxагии мо аз xиҳати иқтисодӣ зарари  калон меоранд. Аксарияти онҳо захираи дон, орд ва дигар маҳсулотҳои захирагиро нобуд мекунанд. Канаҳое, ки дар анборҳо муфтхeрӣ мекунанд, аксарияташон микроскопӣ буда, дар хок зиндагӣ мекунанд ва тез афзоиш мекунанд.
Баъзе канаҳо  ҳамчун хexаини мобайнии тасмакирмҳо мебошанд. Масалан, канаи пансирдор железнитса угревая дар ғадуди  равғанӣ ва халтаи мeй муфтхeрӣ карда, угрӣ ба вуxуд меорад.
Қисми шикамии канаҳо бо қисми сарсина як шуда рафтааст. Фақат дар канаҳои хеле қадимаи содда банднокшавии сарсина ва шикам дида мешавад (қатори канаҳои акариморфӣ). Дар канаҳо хелисера бо педипалп як шуда, аппарати даҳони  хояндаю – маканда (дар намудҳои дарранда ва гуногун ғизокунанда) ва халандаю  макандаро (қатори канаҳои муфтхeр) ҳосил кардааст, яъне аз хун  ё суюқии ҳуҷайра ғизо мекунад.
Канаҳо бо трахея нафас мегиранд, намудҳои хеле  майда бо воситаи  пeст нафас мегиранд.
Тараққиёт бо  метаморфоз мегузарад. Кирминаи аз тухм баромада, 3 xуфт пои роҳгардӣ дорад. Баъд кирмина ба нимфа табдил меёбад, ки e               4 – xуфт пой дорад ва баъди  2 – 3 маротиба пeстпартоӣ болиғ мешавад. Нимфаи  баъзе кирминаҳо беҳаракат буда, стадияи зочагии ҳашаротро ба хотир меорад.
Аз канаҳои хунxаб дар Тоҷикистон канаи саг паҳн шудааст. Наринаи ин кана аз модина ду баробар хурд мебошад (4мм). Модина хунро  макида то 1 см мешавад. E танҳо баъди пурра бо хун  сер шудан тухм мегузорад. То  7 – 10 ҳазор тухм мегузорад. E дар пeсти ҳайвонот ва одам муфтхeрӣ  карда,  хориш ва сeзиши пeстро  ба вуxуд меорад. Барои  онро аз пeст xудо кардан, ба пeст бензин, керосин ё равған молидан лозим аст. Дар ин вақт сeрохии нафасгирии кана  руст шуда, он бо осонӣ xудо мешавад. Дар акси ҳол хартуми кана дар пeст монданаш мумкин. Канаи саг инчунин гузаронандаи касалиҳои гуногун мебошад.
Дигар намуд ин канаи хориш мебошад. Ин кана микроскопӣ. Модинаи бордоршуда наздик 0,3 мм. Тухми худро дар зери пeст мегузорад. Баъд аз ба воя  расидан пeстро шикоф карда ба берун мебарояд. Дар натиxа пeст xароҳатнок мешавад. Одатан канаи хориш дар байни ангуштҳо, дар қисми поёнии буғум муфтхeрӣ мекунад.
Касалии хориш ниҳоят вазнин  ва хеле азобдиҳанда аст. Ғайр аз он аз xои xароҳатдидаи пeст инфексия даромаданаш мумкин аст.
Ба муқобили канаҳо асосан бо роҳи химиёвӣ мубориза бурда мешавад. Ба чарогоҳҳо, оғилхонаҳо  заҳрхимикатҳо пошида мешавад. Баробари мубориза бурдан роҳҳои пешгирӣ кардан ҳам мавxуд аст, ки бо ин роҳ ҳайвонҳоро аз ҳуҷуми канаҳо  нигоҳ  медоранд. ҳайвоноти кишоварзиро дар ҳавзаҳои махсус бо маҳлули  криолитшустушeй мекунанд.

Филогенияи тортанакшаклон
Тортанакшаклон бо сипарнокони исполинӣ ва бо воситаи онҳо бо трилобитҳо хешигӣ доранд. ҳамин тариқ, тортанакшаклон аз намудҳои банднокии нисбатан якхела дошта (ба ин трилобитҳо шаҳодат медиҳад), ба вуxуд омадааст.
Байни тортанакшаклон аз ҳама қадимтарин ва соддатарин каждумон мебошанд. Эволютсияи  тортанакшаклон ба камшавӣ ва ҳатто нест шудани сегментатсияи тана ва тараққиёти  трахея меорад.
Байни тортанакҳои ҳақиқӣ аз ҳама гурeҳи соддатарин тортанакҳои чаҳоршушдор мебошанд. Мавxуд будани ду xуфт шуш, ду xуфт ғадудҳои коксалӣ, набудани трахея, дар баъзе намудҳо банднок будани қисми шикамӣ – ин аломатҳо нисбатан ба дигар тортанакҳо содда будани онҳоро нишон медиҳад.
Эволютсияи канаҳо ба нест шудани бандҳои шикамӣ ва ба ҳаёти муфтхeрӣ гузаштани онҳо оварда расонд.

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